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Sonar Sensing

  • Lindsay Kleeman
  • Roman Kuc
Part of the Springer Handbooks book series (SHB)

Abstract

Sonar or ultrasonic sensing uses the propagation of acoustic energy at higher frequencies than normal hearing to extract information from the environment. This chapter presents the fundamentals and physics of sonar sensing for object localization, landmark measurement and classification in robotics applications. The source of sonar artifacts is explained and how they can be dealt with. Different ultrasonic transducer technologies are outlined with their main characteristics highlighted.

Sonar systems are described that range in sophistication from low-cost threshold-based ranging modules to multitransducer multipulse configurations with associated signal processing requirements capable of accurate range and bearing measurement, interference rejection, motion compensation, and target classification. Continuous-transmission frequency-modulated (CTFM ) systems are introduced and their ability to improve target sensitivity in the presence of noise is discussed. Various sonar ring designs that provide rapid surrounding environmental coverage are described in conjunction with mapping results. Finally the chapter ends with a discussion of biomimetic sonar, which draws inspiration from animals such as bats and dolphins.

Keywords

Pulse Shape Beam Pattern Interaural Time Difference Sonar System Interference Rejection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
2-D

two-dimensional

3-D

three-dimensional

CMOS

complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor

CTFM

continuous-transmission frequency modulation

DFT

discrete Fourier transform

DSP

digital signal processor

FFT

fast Fourier transform

FPGA

field-programmable gate array

FR

false range

HMM

hidden Markov model

IAD

interaural amplitude difference

ITD

interaural time difference

MEMS

microelectromechanical system

MLE

maximum likelihood estimate

MR

multiple reflection

PAS

pseudo-amplitude scan

PVDF

polyvinylidene fluoride

SD

standard deviation

SLAM

simultaneous localization and mapping

TOF

time-of-flight

VO

virtual object

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Computer Systems EngineeringMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Electrical EngineeringYale UniversityNew HavenUSA

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