Flying Robots

  • Stefan Leutenegger
  • Christoph Hürzeler
  • Amanda K. Stowers
  • Kostas Alexis
  • Markus W. Achtelik
  • David Lentink
  • Paul Y. Oh
  • Roland Siegwart

Abstract

Unmanned aircraft systems (UASs) have drawn increasing attention recently, owing to advancements in related research, technology, and applications. While having been deployed successfully in military scenarios for decades, civil use cases have lately been tackled by the robotics research community.

This chapter overviews the core elements of this highly interdisciplinary field; the reader is guided through the design process of aerial robots for various applications starting with a qualitative characterization of different types of UAS. Design and modeling are closely related, forming a typically iterative process of drafting and analyzing the related properties. Therefore, we overview aerodynamics and dynamics, as well as their application to fixed-wing, rotary-wing, and flapping-wing UAS, including related analytical tools and practical guidelines. Respecting use-case-specific requirements and core autonomous robot demands, we finally provide guidelines to related system integration challenges.

2-D

two-dimensional

2.5-D

two-and-a-half-dimensional

3-D

three-dimensional

6-D

six-dimensional

AC

aerodynamic center

AIAA

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AOA

angle of attack

BEMT

blade element momentum theory

BET

blade element theory

CFD

computational fluid dynamics

COG

center of gravity

DC

direct current

DOF

degree of freedom

EKF

extended Kalman filter

FCU

flight control-unit

Fl-UAS

flapping wing unmanned aerial system

FW

fixed-wing

GIS

geographic information system

GPS

global positioning system

ISA

international standard atmosphere

LEV

leading edge vortex

LiPo

lithium polymer

LQR

linear quadratic regulator

LtA-UAS

lighter-than-air system

LtA

lighter-than-air

MIMO

multiple-input–multiple-output

MPC

model predictive control

MT

momentum theory

NASA

National Aeronautics and Space Agency

NDI

nonlinear dynamic inversion

NOAA

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

PL

power loading

RSTA

reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition

RW

rotary-wing

SAS

stability augmentation system

SISO

single input single-output

SLAM

simultaneous localization and mapping

SM

static margin

SOS

save our souls

TECS

total energy control system

UAS

unmanned aircraft system

UAV

unmanned aerial vehicle

UWB

ultrawide band

VTOL

vertical take-off and landing

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefan Leutenegger
    • 1
  • Christoph Hürzeler
    • 2
  • Amanda K. Stowers
    • 3
  • Kostas Alexis
    • 4
  • Markus W. Achtelik
    • 5
  • David Lentink
    • 6
  • Paul Y. Oh
    • 7
  • Roland Siegwart
    • 8
  1. 1.South Kensington Campus, Department of ComputingImperial College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Automation and Robotics R&DAlstom Power Thermal ServicesBadenSwitzerland
  3. 3.Department Mechanical EngineeringStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  4. 4.Institute of Robotics and Intelligent SystemsETH ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  5. 5.Autonomous Systems LaboratoryETH ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  6. 6.Department of Mechanical EngineeringStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  7. 7.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of NevadaLas VegasUSA
  8. 8.Department of Mechanical EngineeringETH ZurichZurichSwitzerland

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