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Transgenic Plants for Higher Antioxidant Content and Drought Stress Tolerance

  • Chandrama Prakash UpadhyayaEmail author
  • Mohammad Anwar Hossain
Chapter

Abstract

Climate change is a major global concern that can make agriculture even more risk-prone, especially in the developing world. Environmental stresses caused by climate change, such as drought, high salinity, low and high temperatures are predicted to become more severe and widespread. One of the most acute environmental stresses presently affecting agriculture is drought, which has pronounced adverse effects on the growth and development of crop plants. The effects of drought stress are expected to increase further with increases in climate change and a growing water crisis. Drought stress usually leads to reductions in crop yield, which can result from many drought-induced morphological, physiological, and metabolic changes that occur in plants. A key sign of drought stress at the molecular level is the accelerated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as singlet oxygen (1O2), superoxide (O 2 ), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals ( OH). The excess production of ROS is common in many abiotic stresses, including drought stress, and results from impaired electron transport processes in the chloroplasts and mitochondria. One of the major causes of ROS production under drought stress is photorespiration, which accounts for more than 70 % of the total H2O2 produced. Plants have endogenous mechanisms for adapting to ROS production and are thought to respond to drought stress by strengthening these defense mechanisms. Therefore, enhancement of the functions of the naturally occurring antioxidant components (enzymatic and nonenzymatic) may be one strategy for reducing or preventing oxidative damage and improving the drought resistance of plants. In this chapter, we review the most recent reports on drought-induced responses in plants, focusing on the role of oxidative stress as well as on other possible mechanisms and examining how different components of the antioxidant defense system may confer tolerance to drought-induced oxidative stress. Transgenic approaches are one of the many tools available for modern crop improvement programs. Gene discovery and functional genomics projects have revealed multitudinous mechanisms and gene families that confer improved productivity and adaptation to drought stresses. The overall aim of genetically improving crops for drought resistance is to develop plants able to obtain water and use it to produce sufficient yields for human needs under drought conditions. Although advances have been made in developing crops that are genetically improved with traits such as herbicide and pesticide resistance, attempts to improve plant drought resistance have been hindered by the complexity of plant drought resistance mechanisms at the whole plant, cellular, metabolic, and genetic levels. Interactions between these mechanisms and the complex nature of drought itself adds another layer of intricacy to this problem. The transgenic plants developed via transformation of several different genes that leads to enhanced antioxidant content and consequently their role in the drought stress tolerance are taken into account.

Keywords

Transgenic plants Drought stress Reactive oxygen species Antioxidants 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We wish to thank Dr. Deepak Kumar, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India for providing several supporting articles and suggestions for improving the chapter. We are also highly thankful to Dr. Ram Prasad, Amity University, Uttar Pradesh, India for critical reading of the chapter.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chandrama Prakash Upadhyaya
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mohammad Anwar Hossain
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyDR Harisingh Gour Central UniversitySagarIndia
  2. 2.Department of Genetics and Plant BreedingBangladesh Agricultural UniversityMymensinghBangladesh

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