An Innovative Online Positive Psychology Training Addressed to Pregnant Youth

  • Giulia Corno
  • Guadalupe Molinari
  • Macarena Espinoza
  • Rocio Herrero
  • Ernestina Etchemendy
  • Alba Carrillo Vega
  • Rosa M. Baños
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 604)

Abstract

Pregnancy involves important changes for women of all ages. Specifically, young pregnant are faced with the difficult task of continuing their physical, emotional, and identity development while preparing for their role as parents. The aim of this work is to present the protocol of an innovative self-applied online positive psychology intervention addressed to pregnant youth. The purpose of this intervention is to enhance well-being, to help these women get through pregnancy in the best possible way. The intervention will be composed by four modules, for a total length of five weeks. Each module will be dedicated to the promotion of one positive dimension through the use of validated positive psychology exercises. We hypothesize that participants will report a significant higher level of happiness at post-test, and follow-up. Secondly, we hypothesize that participants will report a significant increase in positive affect, optimism, life satisfaction, social support, self-compassion, and psychological well-being, and a reduction in depression, anxiety, and negative affect at post-test and follow-up. Tertiary study objective is to examine if particular subgroups (in term of ages, different week of pregnancy, relationship status, unwanted/wanted pregnancy, and different personality profile) will benefit differently than others from the training.

Keywords

Positive psychology intervention Pregnancy Youth Online intervention 

References

  1. 1.
    Zuckerman, B., Bauchner, H., Parker, S., Cabral, H.: Maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy, and newborn irritability. J. Dev. Biol. Behav. Pediatr. 11(4), 190–194 (1990)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Buist, A., Gotman, N., Yonkers, K.A.: Generalized anxiety disorder: course and risk factors in pregnancy. J. Affect. Disord. 131(1), 277–283 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fisk, N.M., Glover, V.: Association between maternal anxiety in pregnancy and increased uterine artery resistance index: cohort based study. BMJ 318(7177), 153–157 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hertzberg, T., Wahlbeck, K.: The impact of pregnancy and puerperium on panic disorder: a review. J. Psychosom. Obstet. Gynaecol. 20(2), 59–64 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Neziroglu, F., Anemone, R., Yaryura-Tobias, J.A.: Onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder in pregnancy. Am. J. Psychiatry 149(7), 947–950 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Blais, M.A., et al.: Pregnancy: Outcome and impact on symptomatology in a cohort of eating-disordered women. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 27(2), 140–149 (2000)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kumar, R., Robson, K.M.: A prospective study of emotional disorders in childbearing women. Br. J. Psychiatry 144(1), 35–47 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    O’Hara, M.W.: Social support, life events, and depression during pregnancy and the puerperium. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 43(6), 569–573 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stevenson, W., Maton, K.I., Teti, D.M.: Social support, relationship quality, and well-being among pregnant adolescents. J. Adolesc. 22(1), 109–121 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Klein, J.D.: Adolescent pregnancy: current trends and issues. Pediatrics 116(1), 281–286 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ex, C.T., Janssens, J.M.: Young females’ images of motherhood. Sex Roles 43(11–12), 865–890 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hudson, D.B., Elek, S.M., Campbell-Grossman, C.: Depression, self-esteem, loneliness, and social support among adolescent mothers participating in the new parents project. Adolescence 35(139), 445–453 (2000)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zachry, E.: Getting my education: teen mothers’ experiences in school before and after motherhood. Teachers Coll. Rec. 107(12), 2566–2598 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kirby, D.: Emerging answers: research findings on programs to reduce teen pregnancy. National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 1776 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, # 200, Washington, DC 20036 (2001)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Martin, J.A., Park, M.M., Sutton, P.D.: Births: preliminary data for 2001. Nat. Vital Stat. Rep. 50(10), 1–20 (2002)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ventura, S.J., Mathews, T.J., Curtin, S.C.: Declines in teenage birth rates, 1991-97: national and state patterns. Nat. Vital Stat. Rep. 47(12), n12 (1998)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    UNICEF: A League of Teenage Births in Rich Nations. Innocenti Report Card No. 3. Florence, Italy: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre (2011)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Key, J.D., Gebregziabher, M.G., Marsh, L.D., O’Rourke, K.M.: Effectiveness of an intensive, school-based intervention for teen mothers. J. Adolesc. Health 42(4), 394–400 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    McDonell, J.R., Limber, S.P., Connor-Godbey, J.: Pathways teen mother support project: longitudinal findings. Child Youth Serv. Rev. 29(7), 840–855 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rothenberg, A., Weissman, A.: The development of programs for pregnant and parenting teens. Soc. Work Health Care 35(3), 65–83 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lyubomirsky, S., Sheldon, K.M., Schkade, D.: Pursuing happiness: the architecture of sustainable change. Rev. Gen. Psychol. 9(2), 111 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Seligman, M.E., Steen, T.A., Park, N., Peterson, C.: Positive psychology progress: empirical validation of interventions. Am. Psychol. 60(5), 410 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sheldon, K.M., Lyubomirsky, S.: How to increase and sustain positive emotion: the effects of expressing gratitude and visualizing best possible selves. J. Positive Psychol. 1(2), 73–82 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lyubomirsky, S.: The how of happiness: a scientific approach to getting the life you want. Penguin, London (2008)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bolier, L., Haverman, M., Westerhof, G.J., Riper, H., Smit, F., et al.: Positive psychology interventions: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. BMC Public Health 13(1), 119 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hone, L.C., Jarden, A., Schofield, G.M.: An evaluation of positive psychology intervention effectiveness trials using the re-aim framework: a practice-friendly review. J. Positive Psychol. 10(4), 303–322 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schueller, S.M.: Identifying and analyzing positive interventions: a meta-analysis. In: Paper presented at the 4th Annual European Conference on Positive Psychology, Rijeka, Croatia, July 2008Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sin, N.L., Lyubomirsky, S.: Enhancing well-being and alleviating depressive symptoms with positive psychology interventions: a practice-friendly meta-analysis. J. Clin. Psychol. 65, 467–487 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ryff, C.D.: Happiness is everything, or is it? explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 57(6), 1069 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Schueller, S.M.: Preferences for positive psychology exercises. J. Positive Psychol. 5(3), 192–203 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Redzic, N.M., Taylor, K., Chang, V., Trockel, M., Shorter, A., Taylor, C.B.: An internet-based positive psychology program: strategies to improve effectiveness and engagement. J. Positive Psychol. 9(6), 494–501 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Schueller, S.M., Parks, A.C.: Disseminating self-help: positive psychology exercises in an online trial. J. Med. Internet Res. 14(3), e63 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bolier, L., Abello, K.M.: Online positive psychological interventions: state of the art and future directions. In: The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of Positive Psychological Interventions, pp. 286–309 (2014)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Fordyce, M.W.: A review of research on the happiness measures: a sixty second index of happiness and mental health. Soc. Indic. Res. 20(4), 355–381 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hervás, G., Vázquez, C.: Construction and validation of a measure of integrative well-being in seven languages: the Pemberton Happiness Index. Health Qual. Life Outcomes 11(1), 66 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fordyce, M.W.: Development of a program to increase personal happiness. J. Couns. Psychol. 24(6), 511 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rowe, H.J., Wynter, K.H., Steele, A., Fisher, J.R., Quinlivan, J.A.: The growth of maternal-fetal emotional attachment in pregnant adolescents: a prospective cohort study. J. Pediatr. Adolesc. Gynecol. 26(6), 327–333 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Meevissen, Y.M., Peters, M.L., Alberts, H.J.: Become more optimistic by imagining a best possible self: effects of a two week intervention. J. Behav. Ther. Exp. Psychiatry 42(3), 371–378 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Williams, M., Penman, D.: Mindfulness: a practical guide to finding peace in a frantic world, vol. 360. Piatkus, London (2011)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Emmons, R.A., McCullough, M.E.: Counting blessings versus burdens: an experimental investigation of gratitude and subjective well-being in daily life. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 84(2), 377 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Seligman, M.E., Ernst, R.M., Gillham, J., Reivich, K., Linkins, M.: Positive education: positive psychology and classroom interventions. Oxford Rev. Educ. 35(3), 293–311 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Parks, A.C., Della Porta, M.D., Pierce, R.S., Zilca, R., Lyubomirsky, S.: Pursuing happiness in everyday life: the characteristics and behaviors of online happiness seekers. Emotion 12(6), 1222 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Layous, K., Nelson, S.K., Lyubomirsky, S.: What is the optimal way to deliver a positive activity intervention? The case of writing about one’s best possible selves. J. Happiness Stud. 14(2), 635–654 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giulia Corno
    • 1
  • Guadalupe Molinari
    • 2
  • Macarena Espinoza
    • 2
  • Rocio Herrero
    • 2
  • Ernestina Etchemendy
    • 3
  • Alba Carrillo Vega
    • 1
  • Rosa M. Baños
    • 1
  1. 1.Universitat de ValenciaValenciaSpain
  2. 2.Universitat Jaume ICastellón de La PlanaSpain
  3. 3.Ciber. Fisiopatología Obesidad y Nutrición. (CIBERObn) Instituto de Salud Carlos IIIMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations