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Introduction

  • Amir ZjajoEmail author
Chapter
  • 1.6k Downloads

Abstract

Continuous monitoring of physiological parameters (e.g., the monitoring of stress and emotion, personal psychological analysis) enabled by brain–machine interface (BMI) circuits is not only beneficial for chronic diseases, but for detection of the onset of a medical condition and the preventive or therapeutic measures. It is expected that the combination of ultra-low power sensor- and ultra-low power wireless communication technology will enable new biomedical devices that will be able to enhance our sensing ability, and can also provide prosthetic functions (e.g., cochlear implants, artificial retina, motor functions). Practical multichannel BMI systems are combined with CMOS electronics for long term and reliable recording and conditioning of intra-cortical neural signals, on-chip processing of the recorded neural data, and stimulating the nervous system in a closed-loop framework. To evade the risk of infection, these systems are implanted under the skin, while the recorded neural signals and the power required for the implant operation is transmitted wirelessly. This migration, to allow proximity between electrodes and circuitry and the increasing density in multichannel electrode arrays, is, however, creating significant design challenges in respect to circuit miniaturization and power dissipation reduction of the recording system. Furthermore, the space to host the system is restricted to ensure minimal tissue damage and tissue displacement during implantation. In this book, this design problem is addressed at various abstraction levels, i.e., circuit level and system level. It therefore provides a broad view on the various solutions that have to be used and their possible combination in very effective complementary techniques. Technology scaling, circuit topologies, architecture trends, (post-silicon) circuit optimization algorithms and yield-constrained, power-per-area minimization framework specifically target power-performance trade-off, from the spatial resolution (i.e., number of channels), feasible wireless data bandwidth and information quality to the delivered power of implantable batteries.

Keywords

Cochlear Implant Analog Circuit Parasitic Capacitance Neural Signal Total Harmonic Distortion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Delft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands

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