Family Traits of Galaxies: From the Tuning Fork to a Physical Classification in a Multi-Wavelength Context

  • Roberto RampazzoEmail author
  • Mauro D’Onofrio
  • Simone Zaggia
  • Debra M. Elmegreen
  • Eija Laurikainen
  • Pierre-Alain Duc
  • Carme Gallart
  • Didier Fraix-Burnet
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Library book series (ASSL, volume 435)


At the time of the Great Debate nebulæ where recognized to have different morphologies and first classifications, sometimes only descriptive, have been attempted. A review of these early classification systems are well documented by the Allan Sandage’s review in 2005 (Sandage 2005 ). This review emphasized the debt, in term of continuity of forms of spiral galaxies, due by the Hubble’s classification scheme to the Reynold’s systems proposed in 1920 (Reynolds 1920 ).


Star Formation Spiral Galaxy Surface Brightness Tuning Fork Stellar Population 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roberto Rampazzo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mauro D’Onofrio
    • 2
  • Simone Zaggia
    • 1
  • Debra M. Elmegreen
    • 3
  • Eija Laurikainen
    • 4
  • Pierre-Alain Duc
    • 5
  • Carme Gallart
    • 6
  • Didier Fraix-Burnet
    • 7
  1. 1.INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di PadovaPadovaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Physics and AstronomyUniversity of PadovaPaduaItaly
  3. 3.Physics and Astronomy DepartmentVassar CollegePoughkeespleUSA
  4. 4.Department of Physics, Astronomy DivisionUniversity of OuluOuluFinland
  5. 5.CEA SaclayService d’AstrophysiqueGif-sur-Yvette CedexFrance
  6. 6.Instituto de Astrofisica de CanariaLa Laguna, TenerifeSpain
  7. 7.Université de Grenoble Alpes/CNRS, IPAGGrenoble Cedex 9France

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