Sustainability of Higher Educational Buildings: Retrofitting Measures to Enhance Energy Performance—The Case of AASTMT Business Management School Building, Egypt

  • Mohsen AboulnagaEmail author
  • Ayman Wanas
  • Mohamed Hammad
  • Mohamed Hussein
Conference paper


Buildings compose the highest portion of global CO2 emissions from different sectors (approximately 5.5 Gt CO2-eq.). According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Egypt is among those nations that will be heavily affected by the impact of climate change, even though its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions represent only 1 % of the world’s GHG emissions. Electricity consumption in public buildings, including administrative, educational, and healthcare-related buildings, is 9 % – the second largest category after residential buildings at 40 %. Enhancing energy performance in higher education and residential buildings will have a significant impact on the reduction of electrical energy consumption, resource efficiency, and the nation’s energy footprint. Energy consumption in educational buildings depends on activities, time of use, and influx of visitors, students, and academic staff, as well as the academic term, that is, winter or summer. Retrofitting measures are important for reducing energy consumption in higher educational buildings and cooling requirements in a hot climate. The most important measures in the retrofitting process of the building envelope, including its roof, are mainly the glazing type and characteristics and the thermal insulation of walls. This chapter focuses on sustainability measures of the Business Management School building at the Arab Academy of Science, Technology & Maritime Transport campus in Cairo, Egypt. The objective is to set a baseline assessment of the building’s energy use and compare it with energy performance after retrofitting measures and simulations. This includes upgrading the glazing with a shading coefficient from 0.81 to 0.35, a wall thermal insulation of the building’s envelope from 4.8 to 1.15 W/Km2, and a green roof. Results show that applying these retrofitting measures led to a reduction in energy use by 27 % from the baseline average energy use of 14.6 kWh/m2 yearly and was further reduced to 495 kWh when a green roof with a U-value of 0.14 W/m2 K was applied.


Sustainability Retrofitting Energy use Energy conservation Higher education building CO2 emission 



The authors would like to thank to Prof Tarek Abdin, Dean of the Business School, for his support and providing access to building information and spaces. Thanks go to the administrative staff for providing the walk-through and technical data. Finally, I thank research students Mohamed Hassan and Heba Sarag for their assistance during data gathering in connection with the energy audit. Last but not least, I sincerely express my gratitude to Architect Mohamed Hammad for running the simulations.


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohsen Aboulnaga
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ayman Wanas
    • 2
  • Mohamed Hammad
    • 1
  • Mohamed Hussein
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Architectural EngineeringCairo UniversityCairoEgypt
  2. 2.Arab Academy for Science, Technology & Maritime Transport, AASTMTCairoEgypt
  3. 3.Department of Architecture and Environmental Design, AASTMTCairoEgypt

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