Exploitation of Wave Energy Potential in Aegean Sea: Greece

  • F. Xanthaki
  • Chr. Giannaraki
  • E. F. Zafeiraki
  • J. K. KaldellisEmail author
Conference paper


In recent decades, renewable energy applications have gained significant market share in the global electricity generation sector and in covering the electricity needs of non-interconnected islands. Among the emerging renewable energy technologies, wave energy utilization is indisputably ranked among the energy sources that could resolve the controversial issue of energy demand coverage.

Greece, located in the eastern Mediterranean region (with a special focus on the Aegean archipelago), has almost 16,000 km of coastline, so the exploitation of marine technologies could contribute to the power supply of most islands as well as of the mainland. In this study, an extensive evaluation of the expected wave power in the Aegean Sea is carried out, focusing on selected sea sites where wave buoys have been located. The basic wave parameters (e.g., significant wave height) along with the corresponding wave power are analyzed for selected regions.

Taking into consideration the vast energy potential available in the sea as well as the fact that coastal areas can benefit greatly from the implementation of such energy solutions, the current study emphasizes both the northern and southern parts of the Aegean archipelago where many grid islands not connected to the mainland are dependent on conventional fuels and, more precisely, oil supplies to meet their urgent electricity needs.

Based on the results of this survey, the future prospects of wave energy and the possible implementation of innovative marine technologies could be supported, providing the remote island communities of the Aegean Sea with clean electrical energy at a reasonable cost.


Significant wave height Wave power Buoy stations Remote islands 



This study was supported by the European Union and the Greek Ministry of Education through the bilateral Greek–French collaboration research framework and the NAPOLEON project.


  1. 1.
    Renewables (2015) Global status report: renewable energy policy network for the 21st century (REN21)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kaldellis JK, Zafirakis D (2011) The wind energy (r)evolution: a short review of a long history. Renew Energy 36(7):1887–1901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kaldellis JK, Kapsali M, Kaldelli E, Katsanou E (2013) Comparing recent views of public attitude on wind energy, photovoltaic and small hydro applications. Renew Energy 52:197–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kaldellis JK, Kapsali M (2013) Shifting towards offshore wind energy recent activity and future development. Energy Policy 53:136–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Esteban MD, Diez JJ, López JS, Negro V (2011) Why offshore wind energy? Renew Energy 36(2):444–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Egbert GD, Ray RD (2003) Semi-diurnal and diurnal tidal dissipation from TOPEX/Poseidon altimetry. Geophys Res Lett 30(17)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wavenet. Results from the work of the European thematic network on wave energy.
  8. 8.
    Kaldellis JK, Giannaraki Chr (2012) Wave energy potential in enclosed seas: a case study in the south-east Mediterranean sea. In: Energy Science and Technology, vole 9: Geothermal and ocean energy. Studium Press, HoustonGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bahaj AS (2011) Generating electricity from the oceans. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 15(7):3399–3416MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stallard T (2012) Economics of ocean energy. In: Sayigh A (ed) Ocean energy volume of comprehensive renewable energy encyclopedia, vol 8. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 151–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Heller V (2012) Development of wave devices from initial conception to commercial demonstration. Compr Renew Energy Encycl 8:79–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Panagiotopoulos M (2010) Recent technological advancements for exploitation of wave energy, CRESGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Clement A, McCullen P, Falcao A et al (2002) Wave energy in Europe: current status and perspectives. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 6(5):405–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    European Ocean Energy Association.
  15. 15.
    Christopoulos S (1989) Growth of wind waves—analysis of measurements and predictive mathematical models. Ph.D. Thesis, Aristotle University of ThessalonikiGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Patelis GB, Kardaras Th (1997) Wave measurements in the Northern Aegean and compared with empirical prediction models. Hydrographic Service GEN, 5th Hellenic symposium of oceanography and fisheries proceedings, vol 1Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Skopeliti A, Tsoulos l, Nakos B, (1995) Development of wave energy atlas in computing environment ARC/INFO. Chartography laboratory, department of rural and surveying engineering, National University of AthensGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Soukissian H, Hatzinaki M, Korres G, Papadopoulos A, Kallos G, Anadranistakis E (2007) Wind and wave atlas of the Hellenic seas, Anavyssos, Greece: Hellenic Centre for Marine ResearchGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kaldellis JK, Kapsali M, Giannaraki Chr, Pavlou A (2013) Opportunities for wave energy exploitation in the east Mediterranean region. Proceedings of the 4th international conference on renewable energy sources and energy efficiency—new challenges, Nicosia, Cyprus, Jun 6–7, pp 129–138Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hellenic Centre for Marine Research. Poseidon database (Athens), c2008-2012.
  21. 21.
    Vicinanza D, Cappietti L, Ferrante V, Contestabile P (2011) Estimation of the wave energy in the Italian offshore. J Coast Res 64:613–617Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rusu E, Soares GC (2009) Numerical modeling to estimate the spatial distribution of the wave energy in the Portuguese nearshore, Unit of Marine Technology and Engineering, Technical University of Lisbon, PortugalCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Delikaraoglou D, Delikaraoglou S (2010) Searching for wave-energy ‘hot spots’ in the Hellenic seas using satellite altimetry wave data. Geophys J Roy Astron Soc 19:70–88Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.5 International License (, which permits any noncommercial use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Xanthaki
    • 1
  • Chr. Giannaraki
    • 1
  • E. F. Zafeiraki
    • 1
  • J. K. Kaldellis
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Soft Energy Applications and Environmental Protection LaboratoryPiraeus University of Applied SciencesAthensGreece

Personalised recommendations