Effect of Shadows on the Performance of Solar Photovoltaic

  • Hussein A. KazemEmail author
  • Miqdam T. Chaichan
  • Ali H. Alwaeli
  • Kavish Mani
Conference paper


This chapter investigates the reduction in photovoltaic (PV) performance due to artificial factors generated by covering each row and column in an array of a solar panel. This covering leads to an overall degradation of the energy produced by that panel. Experiments on the shadow effects of artificial cover, which leads to degraded power generation, were conducted and analyses performed. The obtained results show that the variation in the reduction of PV voltage and power produced from each cell depends on the shadow effect created. Shading causes a decrease in the output of PV, and this chapter’s experiments illustrate the extent of that reduction. The difference between shading of cells in series, in parallel, and a combination of series and parallel with respect to time and temperature are also studied. Another factor examined is the artificial thickness of shadows on the surface that is causing the shading.


  1. 1.
    Shaiek Y, Ben Smida M, Sakly A, Mimouni MF (2013) Comparison between conventional methods and GA approach for maximum power point tracking of shaded solar PV generators. Solar Energy 90:107–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tian H, Mancilla-David F, Ellis K, Muljadi E, Jenkins P (2013) Determination of the optimal configuration for a photovoltaic array depending on the shading condition. Solar Energy 95:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Abdulazeez M, Iskender I (2011) Simulation and experimental study of shading effect on series and parallel connected photovoltaic PV modules. In: Proceedings of the 2011 seventh international conference on electrical and electronics engineering (ELECO), pp 28–32Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Patel H, Agarwal V (2008) MATLAB-based modeling to study the effects of partial shading on PV array characteristics. IEEE Trans Energy Conversion 23(1):302–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ramaprabh R, Balaji M, Mathur BL (2012) Maximum power point tracking of partially shaded solar PV system using modified Fibonacci search method with fuzzy controller. Electr Power Energy Syst 43:754–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ishaque K, Salam Z, Syafaruddin A (2011) A comprehensive MATLAB simulink PV system simulator with partial shading capability based on two-diode model. Solar Energy 85:2217–2227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kuznetsov IA, Greenfield MJ, Mehta YU, Merchan-Merchan W, Salkar G, Saveliev AV (2011) Increasing the solar cell power output by coating with transition metal-oxide nano-rods. Appl Energy 88:4218–4221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chou CS, Guo MG, Liu KH, Chen YS (2012) Preparation of TiO2 particles and their applications in the light scattering layer of a dye-sensitized solar cell. Appl Energy 92:223–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Masters GM (2004) Renewable and efficient electric power systems. Wiley, Englewood CliffsCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Koutroulis E, Kalaitzakis K, Voulgaris NC (2001) Development of a microcontroller-based photovoltaic maximum power point tracking control system. IEEE Trans Power Electron 16(1):46–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bruendlinger R, Bletterie B, Milde M, Oldenkamp H (2006) Maximum power point tracking performance under partially shaded PV array conditions. In: Proc. 21st EUPVSEC, Germany, pp 2157–2160Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Koutroulis E, Blaabjerg F (2012) A new technique for tracking the global maximum power point of PV arrays operating under partial-shading conditions. IEEE J Photovoltaics 2(2):184–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Alajmi BN, Ahmed KH, Finney SJ, Williams BW (2011) Fuzzy logic-control approach of a modified hill-climbing method for maximum power point in micro-grid standalone photovoltaic system. IEEE Trans Power Electron 26(4):1022–1030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mahammad AK, Saon S, Chee WS (2013) Development of optimum controller based on MPPT for photovoltaic system during shading condition. Procedia Eng 53:337–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ramaprabh R, Mathur B, Murthy M, Madhumitha S (2010) New configuration of solar photovoltaic array to address partial shaded conditions. In: Proceedings of third international conference on emerging trends in engineering and technology, pp 328–333Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.5 International License (, which permits any noncommercial use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hussein A. Kazem
    • 1
    Email author
  • Miqdam T. Chaichan
    • 2
  • Ali H. Alwaeli
    • 1
  • Kavish Mani
    • 1
  1. 1.Sohar UniversitySoharOman
  2. 2.University of TechnologyBaghdadIraq

Personalised recommendations