Semi-Empirical Models for the Estimation of Global Solar Irradiance Measurements in Morocco

  • N. LaaroussiEmail author
  • M. Garoum
  • A. Hajji
  • M. Tajayouti
  • A. Feiz
Conference paper


This chapter presents semi-empirical models for estimating global horizontal irradiance (GHI) under specific sky conditions. We analysed the models to estimate GHI measurements in four regions of Morocco. The data consist of a 1-year period at four solar irradiance monitoring stations located in the south of the country, Missour (32.86°N, −4.11°E), Erfoud (31.49°N, −4.22°E), Zagora (30.27°N, −5.85°E) and Tantan (28.50°N, −11.32°E). Several empirical clear sky models are considered for a Moroccan case study. These models are validated using GHI measurements from different stations over different time periods.

The disagreement between the various measurements of GHI and the semi-empirical models used for the estimation of radiation in atmospheric physics and radiative transfer modelling is sometimes significant, especially in the presence of clouds or large concentrations of aerosols. A good agreement is noticed between the measured values and those estimated by some models.


Solar irradiation Global horizontal irradiance Direct normal irradiance Diffuse horizontal irradiance Semi-empirical models 



Solar constant, 1367 W.m−2


Extraterrestrial solar irradiance


Global solar irradiance, W m−2


Direct solar irradiance, W m−2

Ida ,Idm

Diffuse solar irradiance, W m−2


Air mass


Terrestrial albedo


Zenith angle in degrees


Ozone absorption coefficient


Water vapour absorption


Transmittance of aerosol absorptance

τ0 = (1 − α0)

Transmittance of ozone absorptance


Rayleigh scattering transmission


Transmittance of aerosol absorptance and scattering


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Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Laaroussi
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. Garoum
    • 1
  • A. Hajji
    • 1
  • M. Tajayouti
    • 1
  • A. Feiz
    • 2
  1. 1.EST de Salé, Laboratoire d’Energétique, Matériaux et Environnement (LEME), Université Mohammed V Rabat, Avenue Prince Héritier, BP. 227 Salé Medina, MarocRabatMorocco
  2. 2.Laboratoire de Mécanique et d’Energétique d’Evry (LMEE), Equipe Mécanique des Fluides et Environnement (MFE), Université d’Evry Val-d’EssonneEvryFrance

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