• Harry Gelber


How Anglo–Chinese hostilities grew from 1834 – the end of the East India Company’s monopoly on Britain’s Canton trade – to the First Opium War of 1839–1842. Even after that, London grew increasingly impatient with Chinese obstruction at Canton and failure to treat Britain as a diplomatic equal. By 1857 Britain and France turned their attention more fully to the Far East and to minor hostilities at Canton.

There is a separate note on the importance of linguistic misunderstandings between the two sides.


Opium Trade Chinese Authority East India Company British Official Chinese Merchant 
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© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harry Gelber
    • 1
  1. 1.University of TasmaniaTasmaniaAustralia

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