traIXroute: Detecting IXPs in traceroute paths

  • George Nomikos
  • Xenofontas Dimitropoulos
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9631)


Internet eXchange Points (IXP) are critical components of the Internet infrastructure that affect its performance, evolution, security and economics. In this work, we introduce techniques to augment the well-known traceroute tool with the capability of identifying if and where exactly IXPs are crossed in end-to-end paths. Knowing this information can help end-users have more transparency over how their traffic flows in the Internet. Our tool, called traIXroute, exploits data from the PeeringDB (PDB) and the Packet Clearing House (PCH) about IXP IP addresses of BGP routers, IXP members, and IXP prefixes. We show that the used data are both rich, i.e., we find 12,716 IP addresses of BGP routers in 460 IXPs, and mostly accurate, i.e., our validation shows 92–93 % accuracy. In addition, 78.2 % of the detected IXPs in our data are based on multiple diverse evidence and therefore help have higher confidence on the detected IXPs than when relying solely on IXP prefixes. To demonstrate the utility of our tool, we use it to show that one out of five paths in our data cross an IXP and that paths do not normally cross more than a single IXP, as it is expected based on the valley-free model about Internet policies. Furthermore, although the top IXPs both in terms of paths and members are located in Europe, US IXPs attract many more paths than their number of members indicates.


IPv4 Address Detection Rule Member ASes Internet Infrastructure Rout Table Entry 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work has been funded by the European Research Council Grant Agreement no. 338402. We would like to thank Pavlos Sermpezis, Laurent Vanbever, Michalis Bamiedakis and the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments.


  1. 1.
    Archipelago Measurement Infrastructure.
  2. 2.
    CAIDA Monitors: The Archipelago Measurement Infrastructure.
  3. 3.
    Packet Clearing House - Internet Exchange Directory.
  4. 4.
  5. 5.
    Routeviews Prefix to AS mappings Dataset (pfx2as) for IPv4.
  6. 6.
    Team Cymru, IP to ASN mapping.
  7. 7.
  8. 8.
  9. 9.
    The Route Views Project.
  10. 10.
    Ager, B., Chatzis, N., Feldmann, A., Sarrar, N., Uhlig, S., Willinger, W.: Anatomy of a large european ixp. In: Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM (2012)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ahmad, M.Z., Guha, R.: Studying the effect of internet exchange points on internet link delays. In: Proceedings of Spring Simulation Multiconference (2010)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Augustin, B., Friedman, T., Teixeira, R.: Multipath tracing with paris traceroute. In: Proceedings of IEEE End-to-End Monitoring Techniques and Services Workshop (2007)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Augustin, B., Krishnamurthy, B., Willinger, W.: Ixps: mapped?. In: Proceedings of ACM IMC (2009)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chatzis, N., Smaragdakis, G., Feldmann, A., Willinger, W.: There is more to ixps than meets the eye. In: Proceedings of SIGCOMM CCR (2013)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chen, K., Choffnes, D.R., Potharaju, R., Chen, Y., Bustamante, F.E., Pei, D., Zhao, Y.: Where the sidewalk ends: extending the internet as graph using traceroutes from p2p users. In: Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM CoNEXT (2009)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dhamdhere, A., Dovrolis, C.: The internet is flat: modeling the transition from a transit hierarchy to a peering mesh. In: Proceedings of ACM ICPS (2010)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gao, L., Rexford, J.: Stable internet routing without global coordination. In: Proceeidngs of ACM SIGMETRICS (2000)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gill, P., Arlitt, M., Li, Z., Mahanti, A.: The flattening internet topology: natural evolution, unsightly barnacles or contrived collapse? In: Claypool, M., Uhlig, S. (eds.) PAM 2008. LNCS, vol. 4979, pp. 1–10. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Giotsas, V., Smaragdakis, G., Huffaker, B., Luckie, M., Claffy, K.: Mapping peering interconnections to a facility. In: Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM CoNEXT (2015)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Giotsas, V., Zhou, S., Luckie, M., Claffy, K.: Inferring multilateral peering. In: Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM CoNEXT (2013)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gregori, E., Improta, A., Lenzini, L., Orsini, C.: The impact of IXPs on the AS-level topology structure of the internet. Comput. Commun. 34, 68–82 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    He, Y., Siganos, G., Faloutsos, M., Krishnamurthy, S.: Lord of the links: a framework for discovering missing links in the internet topology. IEEE/ACM ToN 17, 391–404 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Labovitz, C., Iekel-Johnson, S., McPherson, D., Oberheide, J., Jahanian, F.: Internet inter-domain traffic. In: ACM SIGCOMM CCR (2011)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Luckie, M.: Scamper: a scalable and extensible packet prober for active measurement of the internet. In: Proceedings of ACM IMC (2010)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mao, Z.M., Rexford, J., Wang, J., Katz, R.H.: Towards an accurate as-level traceroute tool. In: Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM (2003)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Snijders, J.: PeeringDB Accuracy: Is blind faith reasonable? NANOG 58 (2013)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Xu, K., Duan, Z., Zhang, Z.-L., Chandrashekar, J.: On properties of internet exchange points and their impact on AS topology and relationship. In: Mitrou, N.M., Kontovasilis, K., Rouskas, G.N., Iliadis, I., Merakos, L. (eds.) NETWORKING 2004. LNCS, vol. 3042, pp. 284–295. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zhao, X., Pei, D., Wang, L., Massey, D., Mankin, A., Wu, S.F., Zhang, L.: An analysis of bgp multiple origin as (moas) conflicts. In: Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM Internet Measurement Workshop (2001)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Foundation of Research and Technology Hellas (FORTH)HeraklionGreece

Personalised recommendations