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traIXroute: Detecting IXPs in traceroute paths

  • George Nomikos
  • Xenofontas Dimitropoulos
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9631)

Abstract

Internet eXchange Points (IXP) are critical components of the Internet infrastructure that affect its performance, evolution, security and economics. In this work, we introduce techniques to augment the well-known traceroute tool with the capability of identifying if and where exactly IXPs are crossed in end-to-end paths. Knowing this information can help end-users have more transparency over how their traffic flows in the Internet. Our tool, called traIXroute, exploits data from the PeeringDB (PDB) and the Packet Clearing House (PCH) about IXP IP addresses of BGP routers, IXP members, and IXP prefixes. We show that the used data are both rich, i.e., we find 12,716 IP addresses of BGP routers in 460 IXPs, and mostly accurate, i.e., our validation shows 92–93 % accuracy. In addition, 78.2 % of the detected IXPs in our data are based on multiple diverse evidence and therefore help have higher confidence on the detected IXPs than when relying solely on IXP prefixes. To demonstrate the utility of our tool, we use it to show that one out of five paths in our data cross an IXP and that paths do not normally cross more than a single IXP, as it is expected based on the valley-free model about Internet policies. Furthermore, although the top IXPs both in terms of paths and members are located in Europe, US IXPs attract many more paths than their number of members indicates.

Keywords

IPv4 Address Detection Rule Member ASes Internet Infrastructure Rout Table Entry 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work has been funded by the European Research Council Grant Agreement no. 338402. We would like to thank Pavlos Sermpezis, Laurent Vanbever, Michalis Bamiedakis and the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Foundation of Research and Technology Hellas (FORTH)HeraklionGreece

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