Competencies, Challenges, and Changes: A US Perspective on Preparing Twenty-First Century Teachers and Leaders

  • Lynne SchrumEmail author
  • Dale S. Niederhauser
  • Neal Strudler


This chapter articulates the challenge that educators, school leaders, and teacher educators face today in preparing learners for their future, given the reality of students’ and teachers’ lives today. It then provides a US perspective on teacher and leader preparation, specifically related to the use of ICT and goals of preparing individuals for twenty-first century expectations. It explores the pressures, issues, regulations, challenges, and goals of preparing educators and leaders for the schools our students need. Through a review of the extant literature and current trends, readers will gain knowledge of best practices and recommendations for future steps.


Twenty-first century schools ICT Teacher preparation School leadership 


  1. Adamy, P., & Heinecke, W. (2005). The influence of organizational culture on technology integration in teacher education. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 13(2), 233–255.Google Scholar
  2. Ainsa, T. (2013). Early childhood teachers’ response to mobile technology: Creative projects, analysis, and reflection on learning experiences. Education, 134(2), 161–166.Google Scholar
  3. Becker, H. J. (1985a). How schools use microcomputers: Summary of the 1983 National Survey. The Johns Hopkins University Center for Social Organization of Schools. Retrieved from
  4. Becker, H. J. (1985b, July). The second national survey of instructional use of school computers: A preliminary report. Paper presented at the World Conference on Computers in Education, Norfolk, VA, July 1985.Google Scholar
  5. Becker, H. J. (1991). How computers are used in United States schools: Basic data from the 1989 I.E.A. computers in education survey. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 7(4), 385–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Becker, H. J. (2000). Findings from the teaching, learning, and computing survey: Is Larry Cuban right? Retrieved from
  7. Cifuentes, L., Maxwell, G., & Bulu, S. (2011). Technology integration through professional learning community. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 44(1), 59–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Collis, B. (1996). The Internet as an educational innovation: Lessons from experience with computer implementation. Educational Technology, 36(6), 21–30.Google Scholar
  9. Cox, M. J., Niederhauser, D. S., Castillo, N., McDougall, A. B., Sakamoto, T., & Roesvik, S. (2013). Researching IT in education. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 29, 474–486. doi: 10.1111/jcal.12035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Darling-Hammond, L. (2010). The flat world and education: How America’s commitment to equity will determine our future. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  11. David, J. (1991). Restructuring and technology: Partners in change. Phi Delta Kappan, 73(1), 37–40. 78–82.Google Scholar
  12. David, J. L. (1994). Realizing the promise of technology: A policy perspective. In B. Means (Ed.), Technology and education reform (pp. 169–190). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  13. Davies, A. (2004). Finding proof of learning in a one-to-one computing classroom. Courtenay, BC: Connections Publishing.Google Scholar
  14. Dwyer, D., Ringstaff, C., & Sandholtz, J. (1991). Changes in teachers’ beliefs and practices in technology-rich classrooms. Educational Leadership, 48(8), 45–52.Google Scholar
  15. Ertmer, P. A., Bai, H., Dong, C., Khalil, M., Park, S. H., & Wang, L. (2002). Online professional development: Building administrators’ capacity for technology leadership. Journal of Computer in Teacher Education, 19, 5–11.Google Scholar
  16. Ertmer, P. A., & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. T. (2010). Teacher technology change: How knowledge, confidence, beliefs, and culture intersect. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 42(3), 255–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ertmer, P. A., Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. T., Sadik, O., Sendurur, E., & Sendurur, P. (2012). Teacher beliefs and technology integration practices: A critical relationship. Computers & Education, 59, 423–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Eyyam, R., & Yaratan, H. S. (2014). Impact of use of technology in mathematics lessons on student achievement and attitudes. Social Behavior and Personality, 42(12), 31S–42S. doi: 10.2224/sbp.2014.42.0.S31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fairman, J. (2004). Trading roles: Teachers and students learn with technology. Orono, ME: Maine Education Policy Research Institute/University of Maine Office.Google Scholar
  20. Fullan, M. (2013). Stratosphere: Integrating technology, pedagogy, and change knowledge. Toronto, ON: Pearson.Google Scholar
  21. Fullan, M., & Langworthy, M. (2014). A rich seam: How new pedagogies find deep learning. London: Pearson. Retrieved from
  22. Gerard, L. F., Bowyer, J. B., & Linn, M. C. (2008). Principal leadership for technology-enhanced learning in science. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 17, 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gray, L., Thomas, N., & Lewis, L. (2010). Teachers’ use of educational technology in U.S. public schools: 2009 (NCES 2010-040). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics/Institute of Education Sciences/U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
  24. Harris, J. B., & Hofer, M. J. (2011). Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) in action: A descriptive study of secondary teachers’ curriculum based, technology-related instructional planning. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 43(3), 211–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hartsell, T., Herron, S. S., Fang, H., & Rathod, A. (2010). Improving teachers’ self-confidence in learning technology skills and math education through professional development. International Journal of Information and Communication Technology Education, 6(2), 47–61. doi: 10.4018/jicte.2010040105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hatch, M. (2014). The Maker Movement Manifesto: Rules for innovation in the new world of crafters, hackers, and tinkerers. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  27. Hilliard, A., & Jackson, B. T. (2011). Current trends in educational leadership for student success plus facilities planning and designing. Contemporary Issues in Education Research, 4(1), 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jones, B. F., Valdez, G., Nowakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1995). Plugging in: Choosing and using educational technology. Oak Brook, IL: North Central Regional Educational Lab/Council for Educational Development and Research. Retrieved from Scholar
  29. Karchmer, R. A. (2001). The journey ahead: Thirteen teachers report how the internet influences literacy and literacy instruction in their K-12 classrooms. Reading Research Quarterly, 36(4), 442–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Koehler, M. J., & Mishra, P. (2008). Introducing TPCK. In AACTE Committee on Innovation and Technology (Ed.), The handbook of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) for educators (pp. 3–29). New York: American Association of Colleges of Teacher Education and Routledge.Google Scholar
  31. Kopcha, T. J. (2010). A systems-based approach to technology integration using mentoring and communities of practice. Educational Technology Research & Development, 58, 175–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kozma, R. B. (2003). Technology and classroom practices: An international study. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 36(1), 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kozma, R. B. (2008). Comparative analysis of policies for ICT in education. In G. Knezek & J. Voogt (Eds.), International handbook on information technology in education (pp. 1083–1096). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  34. Leithwood, K., Jantzi, D., & McElheron-Hopkins, C. (2006). The development and testing of a school improvement model. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 17(4), 441–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Levin, B. B., & Schrum, L. (2012). Leading technology-rich schools: Award-winning models for success. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  36. Martin, R. L., Bowden, N. S., & Merrill, C. (2014). 3D printing in technology and engineering education. Technology and Engineering Teacher, 73(8), 30–35.Google Scholar
  37. Martinez, S. L., & Stager, G. S. (2013). Invent to learn: Making, tinkering, and engineering in the classroom. Torrance, CA: Constructing Modern Knowledge Press.Google Scholar
  38. Mayrowetz, D. (2008). Making sense of distributed leadership: Exploring the multiple usages of the concept in the field. Educational Administration Quarterly, 44(3), 424–435. doi: 10.1177/0013161X07309480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teacher College Record, 108, 1017–1054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nagel, D. (2014). Spending on instructional tech to reach $19 billion within 5 years. The Journal. Retrieved from
  41. Niederhauser, D. S., & Schmidt-Crawford, D. A. (2013, April). Affects of an elementary school one-to-one initiative on teachers’ pedagogical beliefs and practices. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  42. Niederhauser, D. S., & Stoddart, T. (2001). Teachers’ instructional perspectives and use of educational software. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(1), 15–31. doi: 10.1016/S0742-051X(00)00036-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Office of Technology Assessment. (1988). Power on! New tools for teaching and learning summary. Washington, DC: Office of Technology Assessment.Google Scholar
  44. Office of Technology Assessment. (1995). Teachers and technology: Making the connection. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  45. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2010). The policy debate about technology in education: Are the new millennium learners making the grade? Technology use and educational performance in PISA 2006. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development/Centre for Educational Research and Innovation Publishing.  10.1787/9789264076044-4-en
  46. Overbay, A., Mollette, M., & Vasu, E. S. (2011). A technology plan that works: Administrators should keep five lessons in mind as they implement new technology initiatives. Educational Leadership, 68(5), 56–59.Google Scholar
  47. Papert, S. (1980). Children, computers, and powerful ideas. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  48. Parsad, B., Lewis, L., & Farris, E. (2000). Teacher preparation and professional development: 2000 (NCES 2001–088). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics/Institute of Education Sciences/U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
  49. Partnership for 21st Century Learning. (2015). Framework for 21 st Century Learning. Retrieved from
  50. Penuel, W. R. (2006). Implementation and effects of one-to-one computing initiatives. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 38(3), 329–348. doi: 10.1080/15391523.2006.10782463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Peppler, K., & Bender, S. (2013). Maker movement spreads innovation one project at a time. Kappan, 95(3), 22–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Project Tomorrow. (2008). 21st century learners deserve a 21st century education. Selected national findings of the Speak Up 2007 survey. Retrieved from
  53. Ravitch, D. (2010). The life and death of the great American school system: How testing and choice are undermining education. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  54. Russell, M. (2006). Technology and assessment: The tale of two interpretations. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  55. Sandholtz, J., Ringstaff, C., & Dwyer, D. (1997). Teaching with technology: Creating student-centered classrooms. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  56. Schrum, L. (1999). Technology professional development for teachers. Educational Technology Research & Development, 47(4), 83–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Schrum, L., & Levin, B. B. (2012). Evidence-based strategies for leading 21st century schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
  58. Schrum, L., & Levin, B. (2015). Leading a 21st century school: Harnessing technology for engagement and achievement (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
  59. Senge, P., Cambron-McCabe, N., Lucas, T., Smith, B., Dutton, J., & Kleiner, A. (2000). Schools that learn. New York: Doubleday/Currency.Google Scholar
  60. Senge, P., Kleiner, A., Roberts, C., Ross, R., Roth, G., & Smith, B. (1999). The dance of change. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  61. Sheingold, K. (1991). Restructuring for learning with technology: The potential for synergy. Phi Delta Kappan, 73(1), 17–26.Google Scholar
  62. Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Skinner, B. F. (1984). The shame of American education. American Psychologist, 39(9), 947–954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Spillane, J. P., Halverson, R., & Diamond, J. B. (2001). Investigating school leadership practice: A distributed perspective. Educational Researcher, 30(3), 23–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Vanderlinde, R., & van Braak, J. (2013). Technology planning in schools: An integrated research based model. British Journal of Educational Technology, 44(1), 14–17. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2012.01321.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wagner, T. (2010). The global achievement gap: Why even our best schools don’t teach the new survival skills our children need—And what we can do about it. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  67. Wenglinsky, H. (1998). Does it compute? The relationship between educational technology and student achievement in mathematics. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.Google Scholar
  68. Wenglinsky, H. (2005). Using technology wisely: The keys to success in schools. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lynne Schrum
    • 1
    Email author
  • Dale S. Niederhauser
    • 2
  • Neal Strudler
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.College of Education, Nova Southeastern UniversityFort LauderdaleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Curriculum & InstructionWest Virginia UniversityMorgantownUSA
  3. 3.Department of Teaching & LearningUniversity of Nevada, Las VegasLas VegasUSA
  4. 4.AshlandUSA

Personalised recommendations