Cholangioscopy and Biliary Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy

  • Kunal Karia
  • Angela Saul
  • Amy Tyberg
  • Monica Gaidhane
  • Michel KahalehEmail author


The evaluation of indeterminate biliary strictures is challenging due to the low sensitivity of routine sampling at the time of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Cholangioscopy allows for direct visualization of the biliary mucosa. Confocal laser endomicroscopy is an in vivo imaging technique that provides real-time optical biopsies. Both modalities have the potential to increase diagnostic yields at the time of ERCP. This chapter will focus on the current data available for those two technologies.


Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography Indeterminate biliary stricture Cholangioscopy Confocal laser endomicroscopy Choledocholithiasis Lithotripsy SpyGlass Cellvizio 

Supplementary material

Video 12.1

Colangiocscopy (MP4 21306 kb)

Video 12.2

pCLE (MP4 13227 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kunal Karia
    • 1
  • Angela Saul
    • 1
  • Amy Tyberg
    • 1
  • Monica Gaidhane
    • 1
  • Michel Kahaleh
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Gastroenterology and HepatologyWeill Cornell Medical CollegeNew YorkUSA

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