Canada, a Fertile Ground for Intergroup Relations and Social Identity Theory

Chapter
Part of the Peace Psychology Book Series book series (PPBS)

Abstract

In this chapter we will present three different contexts of intergroup relations that offer a fertile ground for the application of Social Identity Theory in the Canadian context. The first context is that of Aboriginal Canadians and their evolving relationship with non-Aboriginal Canadians. The second context focuses on French–English relations, as their history and languages lay the foundation for Canada’s bilingual and bicultural context of intergroup relations. The third context focuses on immigration (i.e. older vs. newer Canadians) and how changing patterns of immigration have led to different intergroup issues involving social identities based on language, ethnicity, race, and religion. For each of the three contexts we will speak to (1) the nature of social identity, (2) the disadvantaged status of the target group, and (3) the strategies used by group members in each context to achieve a positive social identity.

Keywords

Aboriginal Canadians French–English relations Immigration Multiculturalism 

References

  1. Beauchemin, J. (2004). What does it mean to be a Quebecer? Between self-preservation and openness to the other. In A. G. Gagnon (Ed.), Québec: State and society (pp. 17–32). Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press.Google Scholar
  2. Bourhis, R. Y. (2012). Social psychological aspects of French–English relations in Quebec: From vitality to linguicism. Decline and prospects of the english-speaking communities of Quebec, Canadian Heritage: Ottawa, 313–378.Google Scholar
  3. Bourhis, R. Y. (2013, November). Religious and political background to debate on Parti Québécois Charter of State Secularism: Bill 60. Pathways to Prosperity Conference. http://p2pcanada.ca/files/2013/11/Richard-Bourhis-Quebec-Charter-of-Values.pdf.
  4. Bourhis, R. Y., Barrette, G., & Moriconi, P. A. (2008). Appartenances nationales et orientations d’acculturation au Québec. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 40, 90–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bourhis, R. Y., Giles, H., & Tajfel, H. (1973). Language as a determinant of Welsh identity. European Journal of Social Psychology, 3(4), 447–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bourhis, R. Y., Montaruli, E., & Amiot, C. E. (2007). Language planning and French–English bilingual communication: Montreal field studies from 1977 to 1997. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 2007(185), 187–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Breton, R. (1988). From ethnic to civic nationalism: English Canada and Quebec. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 11(1), 85–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cajete, G. (1999). A people’s ecology: Explorations in sustainable living. Santa Fe, NM: Clear Light Books, Santa Fe, NM.Google Scholar
  9. Chandler, M. J., & Lalonde, C. (1998). Cultural continuity as a hedge against suicide in Canada’s First Nations. Transcultural Psychiatry, 35, 191–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chui, T., Tran, K., & Maheux, H. (2008). Canada’s ethnocultural Mosaic, 2006 census. Ottawa, ON: Minister of Industry. http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/as-sa/97-562/pdf/97-562-XIE2006001.pdf.
  11. Cila, J., & Lalonde, R. N. (2015, August). Personal names among bicultural individuals: Predictors and outcomes. Poster presented at the annual convention of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.Google Scholar
  12. Corbeil, J. P. (2012). Linguistic characteristics of Canadians. Ottawa, ON: Minister of Industry. http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/as-sa/98-314-x/98-314-x2011001-eng.pdf.
  13. Esses, V. M, Dietz, J., Bennett-Abuayyash, C., & Joshi, C. (2007, Spring). Prejudice in the workplace: The role of bias against visible minorities in the devaluation of immigrants’ foreign-acquired qualifications and credentials. Canadian Issues, 114–118.Google Scholar
  14. Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J. C., Glick, P., & Xu, J. (2002). A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: Competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 878–902.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Gagnon, G. A. (Ed.). (2004). Québec: State and society. Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press.Google Scholar
  16. Galarneau, D., & Morissette, R. (2004). Immigrants: Settling for less? Perspectives on Labour and Income, 5(6), 5–16. Statistics Canada Catalogue # 75-001-XIE.Google Scholar
  17. Gardner, R.C. & Kalin, R. (1981). (Eds.) A Canadian social psychology of ethnic relations. Toronto, ON: Methuen.Google Scholar
  18. Giguère, B., Lalonde, R. N., & Jonsson, K. (2012). The influence of traditions on motivated collective actions: A focus on Native land reclamation. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 44, 182–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Giguère, B., Lalonde, R. N., & Lou, E. (2010). Living at the crossroads of cultural worlds: The experience of normative conflicts by second generation immigrant youth. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 4, 14–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Giles, H., Bourhis, R. Y., & Taylor, D. M. (1977). Towards a theory of language in ethnic group relations. In H. Giles (Ed.), Language, ethnicity and intergroup relations (pp. 307–348). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  21. Gilmore, S. (2015, January 22). Canada’s race problem? It’s even worse than America’s. Macleans. http://www.macleans.ca/news/canada/out-of-sight-out-of-mind-2/.
  22. Guimond, S., & Dubé-Simard, L. (1983). Relative deprivation theory and the Quebec nationalist movement: The cognition–emotion distinction and the personal-group deprivation issue. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 526–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Haji, R., Cila, J., & Lalonde, R. N. (2015). Muslims are not all alike: Variations in Muslim Canadian religiosity and attitudes. Manuscript in preparation.Google Scholar
  24. Haji, R., Lalonde, R., Durbin, A., & Naveh-Benjamin, I. (2011). A multidimensional approach to identity: Religious and cultural identity in young Jewish Canadians. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 14, 3–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Highway, T. (2003). Comparing mythologies. Ottawa, ON: University of Ottawa Press.Google Scholar
  26. Highway, T. (2015). A tale of monstrous extravagance: Imagining multilingualism. Edmonton, AB: University of Alberta Press.Google Scholar
  27. Hogg, M. A., & Abrams, D. (1988). Social identifications: A social psychology of intergroup relations and group processes. Florence, KY: Taylor & Frances/Routledge.Google Scholar
  28. King, T. (2012). The inconvenient Indian: A curious account of native people in North America. Toronto, ON: Doubleday Canada.Google Scholar
  29. Lalonde, R. N. (2002). Testing the social identity-intergroup differentiation hypothesis: We’re not American eh! British Journal of Social Psychology, 41, 611–630.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Lalonde, R. N., & Cameron, J. E. (1993). An intergroup perspective on immigrant acculturation with a focus on collective strategies. International Journal of Psychology, 28, 57–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lalonde, R. N., Taylor, D. M., & Moghaddam, F. M. (1992). The process of social identification for visible immigrant women in a multicultural setting. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 23, 25–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Law, S. F., & Mackenzie, C. (2016). “Aussie Aussie Aussie, Oi Oi Oi”: Situating and Understanding Social Identities in Australia. In S. McKeown, R. Haji, & N. Ferguson (Eds.) Understanding peace and conflict through social identity theory: Theoretical, contemporary and worldwide perspectives. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  33. Laxer, E., Carson, R. D., & Korteweg, A. C. (2014). Articulating minority nationhood: Cultural and political dimensions in Québec’s reasonable accommodation debate. Nations and Nationalism, 20, 133–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lou, E., & Lalonde, R. N. (2015). Signs of transcendence? Changing landscape of multiraciality in the 21st century. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 45, 85–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mayer, F. S., & Frantz, C. M. (2004). The connectedness to nature scale: A measure of individuals’ feeling in community with nature. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 24, 503–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. McRoberts, K. (1988). Quebec: Social change and political crisis. Toronto, ON: McClelland & Stewart.Google Scholar
  37. Reitz, J. G., & Banerjee, R. (2007). Racial inequality, social cohesion and policy issues in Canada. In K. Banting, T. J. Courchene, & F. L. Seidle (Eds.), Belonging? Diversity, recognition and shared citizenship in Canada (pp. 489–545). Montreal, QC: Institute for Research on Public Policy.Google Scholar
  38. Ruby, T. (2006). Listening to the voices of hijab. Women’s Studies International Forum, 29, 54–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rule, B. G., & Wells, G. L. (1981). Experimental social psychology in Canada: A look at the Seventies. Canadian Psychology, 22, 69–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sioufi, R., Bourhis, R.Y. & Allard, R. (2015). Vitality and ethnolinguistic attitudes of Acadians, Franco-Ontarians and Francophone Quebecers: two or three solitudes in Canada’s bilingual belt. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. Google Scholar
  41. Stathi, S., & Roscini, C. (2016). Identity and acculturation processes in multicultural societies. In S. McKeown, R. Haji, & N. Ferguson (Eds.) Understanding peace and conflict through social identity theory: Theoretical, contemporary and worldwide perspectives. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  42. Statistics Canada. (2006). Percentage of First Nations people living on and off reserve. http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/as-sa/97-558/figures/c7-eng.cfm.
  43. Statistics Canada. (2011). Projections of the diversity of the Canadian population, 2006 to 2031. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/100309/dq100309a-eng.htm.
  44. Statistics Canada. (2013). National Household Survey. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 99-004-XWE. Ottawa. http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/dp-pd/prof/index.cfm?Lang=E.
  45. Statistics Canada. (2015). Labour force characteristics by immigrant status, by detailed age group. Statistics Canada, CANSIM table 282-0104.Google Scholar
  46. Tajfel, H., Sheikh, A. A., & Gardner, R. C. (1964). Content of stereotypes and the inference of similarity between members of stereotyped groups. Acta Psychologica, 22, 191–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. G. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 33–47). Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  48. Taylor, D. M., & de la Sablonnière, R. (2014). Towards constructive change in Aboriginal communities: A social psychology perspective. Montreal, QC: McGill-Queen’s Press.Google Scholar
  49. Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (2015, May 31). Honouring the truth, reconciling for the future: Summary of the final report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. http://www.trc.ca/websites/trcinstitution/File/2015/Findings/Exec_Summary_2015_05_31_web_o.pdf.
  50. Turner, J. C., & Bourhis, R. Y. (1996). Social identity, interdependence and the social group: A reply to Rabbie et al. In W. P. Robinson (Ed.), Social groups and identities: Developing the legacy of Henry Tajfel (pp. 25–63). Oxford, England: Butterworth Heinemann.Google Scholar
  51. Wilson, K. (2003). Therapeutic landscapes and first nations peoples: An exploration of culture, health and place. Health & Place, 9, 83–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wotherspoon, T., & Hansen, J. (2013). The “Idle No More” movement: Paradoxes of First Nations inclusion in the Canadian Context. Social Inclusion, 1, 21–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wright, S. C., & Taylor, D. M. (2010). Justice in Aboriginal language policy and practices: Fighting institutional discrimination and linguicide. In D. R. Bobocel, A. C. Kay, M. P. Zanna, & J. M. Olson (Eds.), The psychology of justice and legitimacy (pp. 273–298). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  54. Yalden, M. (2013, Fall). Foreward: The B&B commission—50 years on. Canadian Issues, 8–13.Google Scholar
  55. Yampolsky, M. A., Amiot, C. E., de la Sablonnière, R. (2015). The Multicultural Identity Integration Scale (MULTIIS): Developing a comprehensive measure for configuring one’s multiple cultural identities within the self. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. doi:10.1037/cdp0000043.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard N. Lalonde
    • 1
  • Jorida Cila
    • 1
  • Maya Yampolsky
    • 1
  1. 1.York UniversityTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations