Structural Assessment of a School Building in Sankhu, Nepal Damaged Due to Torsional Response During the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake

  • Supratik Bose
  • Amin Nozari
  • Mohammad Ebrahim Mohammadi
  • Andreas Stavridis
  • Moaveni Babak
  • Richard Wood
  • Dan Gillins
  • Andre Barbosa
Conference paper
Part of the Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series book series (CPSEMS)


This paper discusses the structural assessment of a red-tagged four-story school building in Sankhu, Nepal. The building had a masonry-infilled reinforced concrete frame which was severely damaged during the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake. The concentration of damage in the west end of the first story indicates that the frame exhibited torsional response to the ground excitation. The authors visited the structure 2 months after the earthquake, collected LiDAR scans, and recorded the ambient vibrations of the damaged structure. The LiDAR data has been used to create a three-dimensional point cloud of the building which has allowed the identification of the locations and geometry of the major cracks but also the measurement of the permanent deformations of the building. The structure was also instrumented with four unidirectional accelerometers on every floor; two at opposite corners, to capture the translational and torsional motion. The translational and torsional modes have been identified with an operational modal analysis method and have been used to validate a finite element model of the structure. The comparison indicates that the model can capture the modal properties of the structure utilizing the strut modeling approach for the infill panels.


Infilled RC frame 2015 Nepal Earthquake LiDAR scan Stochastic subspace identification method Finite element model 



The researchers from the University at Buffalo and Oregon State University were supported by NSF Awards #1545595 and #1545632, respectively. The authors would also like to acknowledge the support of National Society of Earthquake Technology (NSET) in Nepal, through the support of Ramesh Guragain and Dev Kumar Maharjan. The collaboration of other researchers including Patrick Burns, Matt Gillins, Michael Olsen, Giuseppe Brando, Davide Rapone, Enrico Spacone, Rajendra Soti, Humberto Varum, António Arêde, Nelson Vila-Pouca, André Furtado, João Oliveira, Hugo Rodrigues, Marco Faggella and Rosario Gigliotti during the reconnaissance trip and in the collection of data is greatly appreciated as well. However, the opinions expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of the sponsor or the collaborators.


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Copyright information

© The Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc. 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Supratik Bose
    • 1
  • Amin Nozari
    • 2
  • Mohammad Ebrahim Mohammadi
    • 3
  • Andreas Stavridis
    • 1
  • Moaveni Babak
    • 2
  • Richard Wood
    • 3
  • Dan Gillins
    • 4
  • Andre Barbosa
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental EngineeringUniversity at BuffaloBuffaloUSA
  2. 2.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringTufts UniversityMedfordUSA
  3. 3.Department of Civil EngineeringUniversity of Nebraska LincolnLincolnUSA
  4. 4.Department of Civil and Construction EngineeringOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA

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