Advertisement

Norwegian Right-Wing Discourses: Extremism Post-Utøya

  • Sindre Bangstad
Chapter
Part of the Boundaries of Religious Freedom: Regulating Religion in Diverse Societies book series (BOREFRRERE)

Abstract

Since the terror attacks in Oslo and at Utøya in Norway in which 77 civilians lost their lives on 22 July 2011 there have been a number of attempts to provide explanations for the atrocities committed by Anders Behring Breivik. This chapter contends they cannot be understood without reference to the ideology with which he legitimated his actions. It explores the intersections between extreme and populist/radical right-wing discourses on Islam and Muslims in Norway since the 1980s through the methods of critical discourse analysis and shows that among politicians in Norway’s most popular political right-wing party The Progress Party (PP) there is a long record of utilising rhetorical tropes of extreme right-wing provenance and/or distribution when it comes to immigration, multiculturalism, Islam and Muslims. Central PP politicians in Norway have, for 25 years, cast Muslims in Norway as an ‘existential threat’ to Norway and Norwegians. In so doing, some of the central PP politicians have endorsed and promoted a discourse which, even though it did not directly incite violence, have certainly advanced ideas about Muslims and Islam which are of extreme right-wing provenance and are taken by some extreme right-wingers to offer tacit support for their cause. From an analytical point of view, extreme and populist/radical right-wing discourses on Islam and Muslims form part of a continuum, rather than being discourses clearly demarcated from one another. Whilst there is no direct and unmediated link between rhetorical ‘fighting words’ and behavioural ‘fighting acts’, the ideology that drove the terror of 22 July 2011 cannot be understood without exploring these intersections which Anders Breivik came to construe as legitimating specific courses of violent action.

Keywords

Islamophobia Utøya Anders Behring Breivik Right-wing discourse Fremskrittspartiet Terrorism Islam in Norway Eurabia genre Stealth Islamisation 

References

  1. 22/7 Commission. (2012). Rapport fra 22.juli-kommisjonen (NOU 2012: 14). Oslo: Departmentenes Servicesenter.Google Scholar
  2. Aardal, B. O. (1999). Velgere i 90-årene. Oslo: NKS-Forlaget.Google Scholar
  3. Ali, W., Clifton, E., Duss, M., Fang, L., Keyes, S., & Shakir, F. (2011). Fear Inc.: The roots of the Islamophobia network in America. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress.Google Scholar
  4. Allen, C. (2010). Islamophobia. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  5. Art, D. (2011). Inside the radical right: The development of anti-immigrant parties in Western Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bangstad, S. (2012). Failing to protect minorities against racist and/or discriminatory speech? The case of Norway and §135(a) of the Norwegian General Penal Code. Nordic Journal of Human Rights, 30(4), 483–514.Google Scholar
  7. Bangstad, S. (2013). Eurabia comes to Norway. Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations, 24(3), 369–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bawer, B. (2012). The new quislings: How the international Left used the Oslo massacre to silence debate about Islam. London: Harper & Collins.Google Scholar
  9. Berg, H. (2007). Amerikabrevet: Europa i fare. Oslo: Koloritt forlag.Google Scholar
  10. Berg, H. (2013). Demokrati eller islamisme. Oslo: Hermon forlag.Google Scholar
  11. Betz, H.-G., & Meret, S. (2009). Revisiting Lepanto: The political mobilization against Islam in contemporary Western Europe. Special issue: Anti-muslim prejudice in the West, past and present. Patterns of Prejudice, 43(3–4), 313–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bjørklund, T. (1999). Et lokalvalg i perspektiv. Oslo: Tano Aschehoug.Google Scholar
  13. Bjurwald, L. (2011). Europas skam: Rasister på fremmarsj. Oslo: Cappelen Damm.Google Scholar
  14. Bleich, E. (2011). What is Islamophobia and how much is there? Theorizing and measuring an emerging comparative concept. American Behavioral Scientist, 55(12), 1581–1600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Blindheim, A. M. (2014, August 23). «Uheldig muslimdominans å ha Hadeda Taquia som leder i justiskomitéen». Dagbladet Nyheter. http://goo.gl/ULCbN8. Accessed 5 Dec 2014.
  16. Blommaert, J., & Bulcaen, C. (2000). Critical discourse analysis. Annual Review of Anthropology, 29, 447–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Borchgrevink, A. S. (2012). En norsk tragedie: Anders Behring Breivik og veiene til Utøya. Oslo: Cappelen Damm.Google Scholar
  18. Bravo López, F. (2011). Towards a definition of Islamophobia: Approximations of the early twentieth century. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 34(4), 556–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carr, M. (2006). You are now entering Eurabia. Race & Class, 48(1), 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Document.no. (2011, July 23). Anders Behring Breiviks kommentarer hos Document.no. http://goo.gl/30g47t. Accessed 5 Dec 2014.
  21. Døving, C. A. (2012). Norge snikislamiseres. In S. Indregard (Ed.), Motgift: Akademisk respons på den nye høyreekstremismen (pp. 87–97). Oslo: Flamme Forlag.Google Scholar
  22. Eagleton, T. (1991). Ideology: An introduction. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  23. Elinas, A. E. (2010). The media and the Far Right in Europe: Playing the nationalist card. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Enebakk, V. (2012). Fjordmans Radikalisering. In Ø. Sørensen, B. Hagtvet, & B. A. Steine (Eds.), Høyrekstreme ideer og bevegelser i Europa (pp. 45–101). Oslo: Dreyer.Google Scholar
  25. Fairclough, N. (1992). Discourse and social change. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  26. Fekete, L. (2007). A suitable enemy: Racism, migration and Islamophobia in Europe. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  27. Freeden, M. (2003). Ideology: A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fremskrittspartiet [FrP]. (2007). Stortingsgruppens innvandrings- og integreringsutvalg. Rapport. Juni.Google Scholar
  29. Gabriel, M. A. (2002). Islam and terrorism: What the Quran really teaches about Christianity, violence and the goals of the Islamic jihad. Lake Mary: FrontLine.Google Scholar
  30. Gardell, M. (2010). Islamofobi. Stockholm: Leopold Förlag.Google Scholar
  31. Goodwin, M. (2011). Right response: Understanding and countering right-wing extremism in Europe (A Chatham house report). London: The Royal Institute of International Affairs.Google Scholar
  32. Griffin, R. (1995). General introduction. In R. Griffin (Ed.), Fascism: A reader (pp. 1–12). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Hafez, F. (2014). Shifting borders: Islamophobia as common ground for building pan-European right-wing unity. Patterns of Prejudice, 48(5), 479–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hagelund, A. (2003). A matter of decency? The progress party in Norwegian immigration politics. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 29(1), 47–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hawkes, D. (2003). Ideology. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  36. HL-senteret. (2012). Antisemittisme i Norge? Den norske befolkningens holdninger til jøder og andre minoriteter [Anti-semitism in Norway? The attitudes of the Norwegian population towards Jews and other minorities]. Oslo: HL-senteret.Google Scholar
  37. Ignazi, P. (2003). Extreme right-wing parties in Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jupskås, A. R. (2009). Høyrepopulisme på norsk. Historien om Anders Langes Parti og Fremskrittspartiet. In A. G. Kjøstvedt, T. E. Simonsen, & K. Randin (Eds.), Høyrepopulisme i Vest-Europa (pp. 27–79). Oslo: Unipub.Google Scholar
  39. Jupskås, A. R. (2012). Ekstreme Europa. Oslo: Cappelen Damm.Google Scholar
  40. Larsson, G. (2012). The fear of small numbers: Eurabia literature and censuses on religious belonging. Journal of Muslims in Europe, 1(2), 142–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lean, N. (2012). The Islamophobia industry: How the Far Right manufactures fear of Muslims. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  42. Leirvik, O. (2006). Kva var karikatursaka eit bilete på? Kirke og kultur, 2, 147–160.Google Scholar
  43. Lunde, H. (1993). Aller ytterst. De rasistiske grupperingene i dagens Norge. Oslo: Antirasistisk Senter.Google Scholar
  44. Malkenes, S. (2012). Apokalypse Oslo. Oslo: Samlaget.Google Scholar
  45. Mannheim, K. (1936). Ideology and utopia. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  46. Mamdani, M. (2004). Good Muslim, bad Muslim: America, the Cold War, and the roots of terror. New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  47. Momen, M. (1985). An introduction to Shi‘i Islam. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Mudde, C. (1999). The single-issue party thesis: Extreme right parties and the immigration issue. Western European Politics, 22(3), 182–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mudde, C. (2007). Populist radical Right parties in Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Nordiske Mediedager. (n.d.) Medieundersøkelsen 2013: Tall og tabeller. http://goo.gl/17vxbl. Accessed 5 Dec 2014.
  51. Nussbaum, M. C. (2012). The new religious intolerance: Overcoming the politics of fear in an age of anxiety. Cambridge, MA: Belknap.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Oslo Magistrate’s Court. (2012). Dom i 22. Juli-rettsaken.Google Scholar
  53. Østby, L. (2008). Levekårsundersøkelse blant innvandrere—hvordan og hvorfor. In S. Blom & K. Henriksen (Eds.), Levekår blant innvandrere i Norge 2005/2006 (pp. 15–26). Oslo: Statistisk Sentralbyrå.Google Scholar
  54. Perniola, M. (1991). Del sentire [On feeling]. Torino: Einaudi.Google Scholar
  55. Pilbeam, B. (2011). Eurabian nightmares: American and conservative discourses and the Islamisation of Europe. Journal of Transatlantic Studies, 9(2), 151–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Razack, S. H. (2004). Imperilled Muslim women, dangerous Muslim men and civilised Europeans: Legal and social responses to forced marriages. Feminist Legal Studies, 12(1), 129–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rydgren, J. (2007). The sociology of the radical Right. Annual Review of Sociology, 33, 241–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Seierstad, Å. (2015). One of us: The story of Anders Breivik and the massacre in Norway. Trans. Sarah Death. New York: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux.Google Scholar
  59. Sørensen, Ø. (2012). Bare en gal manns verk? In S. Indregard (Ed.), Motgift: Akademisk respons på den nye høyreekstremismen (pp. 42–52). Oslo: Flamme Forlag.Google Scholar
  60. Spencer, R. (2008). Stealth jihad: How radical Islam is subverting America without guns or bombs. Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing.Google Scholar
  61. Stormark, K. (2012). Massemorderens private e-poster. Oslo: Spartacus.Google Scholar
  62. Strømmen, Ø. (2011). Det Mørke Nettet. Oslo: Cappelen Damm.Google Scholar
  63. Strømmen, Ø., & Indregard, S. (2012). Den nye høyreekstremismen. In S. Indregard (Ed.), Motgift: Akademisk respons på den nye høyreekstremismen (pp. 20–41). Oslo: Flamme Forlag.Google Scholar
  64. Strømmen, Ø. (2012, January 17). Utviklingstrekk i norsk høgreekstremisme. Notat til 22.Juli-kommisjonen (4/12). http://goo.gl/i46v1b. Accessed 3 Dec 2014.
  65. Van Dijk, T. A. (1993). Principles of critical discourse analysis. Discourse & Society, 4(2), 249–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Vepsen, F. (2012). Hatgrupper 2011: Årsrapport fra Vepsen.org. Oslo: Foreningen Vepsen.Google Scholar
  67. Warburton, N. (2009). Free speech: A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wodak, R. (1995). Critical linguistics and critical discourse analysis. In J. Verscheuren, J.-O. Östman, & E. Versluys (Eds.), Handbook of Pragmatics 1995 (pp. 204–210). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  69. Žižek, S. (Ed.). (1994). Mapping ideology. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  70. Žižek, S. (2008). Violence: Six sideways reflections. London: Profile Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.KIFO, Institute For Church, Religion And Worldview ResearchUniversity of OsloOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations