Voltage Control in Low Voltage Grids with Distributed Energy Resources: A Droop-Based Approach
The challenges associated with the integration of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) in the electrical grid are among the main motivations for the implementation of Smart Grid functionalities. Bi-directionality of power flows leads to a potential imbalance between load and generation, requiring more dynamic voltage control mechanisms. Although the Smart Grid communication capabilities make it possible to implement more optimal centralized voltage control mechanisms, it may be still useful to have backup distributed mechanisms that are able to keep an acceptable operational level even upon communication failure due to equipment malfunction or intentional damage. Based on this need, this paper presents two droop-based voltage control algorithms, which can operate in the absence of a communication infrastructure. A time-division mechanism is used to avoid conflicts between decisions at the local level. The results show that the distributed algorithms are able to acceptably approach the performance of a centralized algorithm.
KeywordsSmart grid Low voltage distribution Voltage limit control Droop-based techniques
This work was supported in part by European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SMARTCITIES-2013) under Grant 609132 (http://www.e-balance-project.eu/), in part by national funding from QREN through the “Monitorização e controlo inteligente da rede de Baixa Tensão” (Monitor BT) project and in part by FCT – Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, with reference UID/CEC/50021/2013.
- 1.DL 153/2014, 20th of October, by which the distributed electricity generation activity is regulatedGoogle Scholar
- 2.U.S. Department of Energy, 2012. Application of Automated Controls for Voltage a Reactive Power ManagementGoogle Scholar
- 3.Silva, N., Delgado, N., Costa, N., Bernardo A., Carrapatoso, A.: Control architectures to perform voltage regulation on low voltage networks using DG. In: CIRED 2012 Workshop on Integration of Renewables into the Distribution Grid, pp. 1−4. Lisbon (2012). ISBN: 978-1-84919-628-4Google Scholar
- 4.Krushna, K., Kumar, S.V.: Three-Phase Unbalanced Radial Distribution Load Flow Method. Int. Refereed J. Eng. Sci. (IRJES) 1(1), 39–42 (2012). ISSN (Online) 2319-183X, (Print) 2319-1821Google Scholar
- 8.Nunes, M.: Dynamic control method of power injected into the power grid by distributed generators. PCT/2015000040, Patent submitted in July 2015Google Scholar
- 9.Ngspice circuit simulator. http://ngspice.sourceforge.net/