Advertisement

Social Policy and Justice for Children

  • Gottfried SchweigerEmail author
  • Gunter Graf
Chapter
Part of the Philosophy and Politics - Critical Explorations book series (PPCE, volume 1)

Abstract

Empirical evidence clearly shows that child poverty is a growing concern in the industrialized world and that the well-being of children is deeply affected by growing up in poverty in at least two ways. On the one hand, a low socioeconomic status jeopardizes the access to goods and services that are necessary for the current well-being of children. On the other hand, growing up in poverty also, in various ways, negatively affects the well-being in later life. On the basis of the capability approach, we will show that the systematic protection and advancement of the well-being of children, and hence the reduction of child poverty, is a key task of social justice, which should therefore guide policy design and implementation. However, we will also discuss the special composition of the well-being of children and point out how it poses difficulties for state action in this regard. In particular, we will argue that the importance of love and affection for a child’s well-being limits considerably the possible political measures to provide fair life chances to all children. This again reflects the insight that poverty should not be reduced to economic inequality.

Keywords

Social Policy Social Justice Moral Responsibility Capability Approach Child Poverty 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Addy, S., W. Engelhardt, and C. Skinner. 2013. Basic facts about low-income children: Children under 18 years, 2011. New York: National Center for Children in Poverty. http://www.nccp.org/publications/pdf/text_1074.pdf.
  2. Albert, C., and M.A. Davia. 2010. Education is a key determinant of health in Europe: A comparative analysis of 11 countries. Health Promotion International 26(2) (October 8): 163–170. doi: 10.1093/heapro/daq059.
  3. Alkire, S. 2002. Valuing freedoms: Sen’s capability approach and poverty reduction. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, E. 2010. Justifying the capability approach to justice. In Measuring justice: Primary goods and capabilities, 1st ed, ed. Harry Brighouse and Ingrid Robeyns, 81–100. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Archard, D. 2004. Children: Rights and childhood, 2nd ed. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  6. Biggeri, M., and S. Mehrotra. 2011. Child poverty as capability deprivation: How to choose domains of child well-being and poverty. In Children and the capability approach, 1st ed, ed. Mario Biggeri, Jérôme Ballet, and Flavio Comim, 46–75. Basingstoke/New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  7. Biggeri, M., J. Ballet, and F. Comim. 2011. Children’s agency and the capability approach: A conceptual framework. In Children and the capability approach, ed. Mario Biggeri, Jérôme Ballet and Flavio Comim, 22–45. Basingstoke/New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  8. Braveman, P., S. Egerter, and D.R. Williams. 2011. The social determinants of health: Coming of age. Annual Review of Public Health 32(April 21): 381–398. doi: 10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031210-101218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Camfield, L., M. Woodhead, and N. Streuli. 2009. What’s the use of ‚well-being’ in contexts of child poverty? Approaches to research, monitoring and children’s participation. The International Journal of Children’s Rights 17(1) (January 1): 65–109. doi: 10.1163/157181808X357330.
  10. Cawson, P. 2002. Child maltreatment in the family: The experience of a national sample of young people. London: NSPCC.Google Scholar
  11. Condron, D.J. 2011. Egalitarianism and educational excellence: Compatible goals for affluent societies? Educational Researcher 40(2) (March 29): 47–55. doi: 10.3102/0013189X11401021.
  12. Conroy, K., M. Sandel, and B.,Zuckerman. 2010. Poverty grown up: How childhood socioeconomic status impacts adult health. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics 31 (2) (February): 154–160. doi: 10.1097/DBP.0b013e3181c21a1b.
  13. Crowley, A., and C. Vulliamy. 2007. Listen up! Children and young people talk: About poverty. Wales: Save the Children. http://www.savethechildren.org.uk/sites/default/files/docs/wales_lu_pov_1.pdf.
  14. Dean, H. 2012. Social policy, 2nd ed. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  15. Dixon, R., and M. Nussbaum. 2012. Children’s rights and a capabilities approach: The question of special priority. (Chicago Public Law & Legal Theory Working Paper, no. 384). http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2060614.
  16. Duncan, G.J., and R.J. Murnane (eds.). 2011. Whither opportunity? Rising inequality, schools, and children’s life chances. New York/Chicago: Russell Sage Foundation/Spencer Foundation.Google Scholar
  17. Dunkel Schetter, C., and L.M. Glynn. 2010. Stress in pregnancy: Empirical evidence and theoretical issues to guide interdisciplinary researchers. In The handbook of stress science: Biology, psychology, and health, ed. Richard J. Contrada and Andrew Baum, 321–343. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  18. Graf, G., and G. Schweiger. 2015a. A philosophical examination of social justice and child poverty, 1st ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  19. Graf, G., and G. Schweiger (eds.). 2015b. The well-being of children: Philosophical and social scientific approaches, 1st ed. Berlin: DeGruyter.Google Scholar
  20. Leßmann, O. 2009. Capability and learning to choose. Studies in Philosophy and Education 28(5) (January 31): 449–460. doi: 10.1007/s11217-009-9123-9.
  21. Liao, S.M. 2006. The right of children to be loved. Journal of Political Philosophy 14(4): 420–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Liu, L., H.L. Johnson, S. Cousens, J. Perin, S. Scott, J.E. Lawn, I. Rudan, et al. 2012. Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality: An updated systematic analysis for 2010 with time trends since 2000. Lancet 379(9832) (June 9): 2151–2161. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60560-1.
  23. Macleod, C.M. 2002. Liberal equality and the affective family. In The moral and political status of children, 1st ed, ed. David Archard and Colin M. Macleod, Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Main, G., and J. Bradshaw. 2012. A child material deprivation index. Child Indicators Research 5(3) (June 9): 503–521. doi: 10.1007/s12187-012-9145-7.
  25. McAuley, C., and W. Rose (eds.). 2010. Child well-being: Understanding children’s lives. London/Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.Google Scholar
  26. Millar, J. 2007. Social exclusion and social policy research: Defining exclusion. In Multidisciplinary handbook of social exclusion research, ed. Dominic Abrams, Julie Christian, and David Gordon, 1–16. Chichester: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nussbaum, M.C. 2000. Women and human development—The capabilities approach, 1st ed. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Nussbaum, M.C. 2006. Frontiers of justice. Disability, nationality, and species membership. Cambridge, MA/London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Nussbaum, M.C. 2011. Creating capabilities: The human development approach, 1st ed. Cambridge, MA/London: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Olinto, P., K. Beegle, C. Sobrado, and H. Uematsu. 2013. The state of the poor: Where are the poor, where is extreme poverty harder to end, and what is the current profile of the world’s poor? Washington, DC: World Bank. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTPREMNET/Resources/EP125.pdf.
  31. Ridge, T. 2002. Childhood poverty and social exclusion: From a child’s perspective. Bristol: Policy Press.Google Scholar
  32. Ridge, T. 2009. Living with poverty: A review of the literature on children’s and families’ experiences of poverty. Research Report No 594. London: Department for Work and Pensions. http://research.dwp.gov.uk/asd/asd5/rports2009-2010/rrep594.pdf.
  33. Robeyns, I. 2003. Sen’s capability approach and gender inequality: Selecting relevant capabilities. Feminist Economics 9(2–3): 61–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Robeyns, I. 2005. The capability approach: A theoretical survey. Journal of Human Development 6(1): 93–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Russell, M., B. Harris, and A., Gockel. 2008. Parenting in poverty: Perspectives of high-risk parents. Journal of Children and Poverty 14 (1) (March): 83–98. doi: 10.1080/10796120701871322.
  36. Sen, A. 1999. Development as freedom. New York: Anchor Books.Google Scholar
  37. Slack, K.S. et al. 2011. Understanding the risks of child neglect. In Child maltreatment: A collection of readings, 182–201. Thousand Oaks: SAGEGoogle Scholar
  38. UNICEF IRC. 2013. Child well-being in rich countries: A comparative overview. Innocenti Report Card 11. Florence: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre. http://www.unicef.org/media/files/RC11-ENG-embargo.pdf.
  39. Venkatapuram, S. 2011. Health justice. Cambridge/Malden: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  40. Walker, M., and E. Unterhalter (eds.). 2010. Amartya Sen’s capability approach and social justice in education. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  41. Wolff, J., and A. De-Shalit. 2007. Disadvantage. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yoshikawa, H., J.L. Aber, and W.R. Beardslee. 2012. The effects of poverty on the mental, emotional, and behavioral health of children and youth: Implications for prevention. American Psychologist 67(4): 272–284. doi: 10.1037/a0028015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Young, I.M. 2011. Responsibility for justice, Oxford political philosophy. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Ethics and Poverty ResearchUniversity of SalzburgSalzburgAustria
  2. 2.International Research Centre for Social and Ethical QuestionsSalzburgAustria

Personalised recommendations