The Meaning of Doctorate Holders for Human Capital Development of Nations

  • Dirk MeissnerEmail author
  • Leonid Gokhberg
  • Natalia Shmatko
Part of the Science, Technology and Innovation Studies book series (STAIS)


Given the constantly high demand for skilled workers in professions and industries around the world, national governments strive for developing and implementing comprehensive and sustained policy measures to develop human potential of countries. This is especially done by educating people towards tertiary graduates and most recently by enforcing doctoral education and training. The aim of these initiatives is to make highly qualified graduates available to the labor market with the ambition to achieve and maintain sustainable competitiveness of the national labor force (OECD 2011). There is consensus that if countries want to develop and maintain competencies and capacities for science, technology and innovation the education and training system needs to be strengthened at all its levels.


Labor Market Labor Force Doctoral Student Skilled Professional National Innovation System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The chapter was prepared within the framework of the Basic Research Program at the National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE) and supported within the framework of a subsidy by the Russian Academic Excellence Project ‘5-100’.


  1. Carayannis EG, Meissner D, Edelkina A. (2015) Targeted innovation policy and practice intelligence (TIP2E): concepts and implications for theory, policy and practice. J Technol Transfer doi: 10.1007/s10961-015-9433-8
  2. Devos A, Somerville M (2012) What constitutes doctoral knowledge? Exploring issues of power and subjectivity in doctoral examination. Aust Univ Rev 54(1):47–54Google Scholar
  3. Gokhberg L, Meissner D (2013) Innovation: superpowered invention. Nature 501:313–314. doi: 10.1038/501313a CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Gokhberg L, Poliakova V (2014) Innovative activities and skills. In: Dutta S, Lanvin B, Wunsch-Vincent S (eds) The global innovation index 2014. The human factor in innovation. Fontainebleau, Cornell University, INSEAD, WIPO, Ithaca, NY, Geneva, pp 93–99Google Scholar
  5. Goossens M (2012) What career in industry for engineers with a PhD? CLAIU-EU conference “The Engineering Doctorate”, Madrid, 9–10 Feb 2012. Last accessed 25 Jun 2015
  6. Greenlee AJ, Edwards M, Anthony J (2015) Planning skills: an examination of supply and local government demand. J Plan Educ Res 35(2):161–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Huisman J, Naidoo R (2006) The professional doctorate: from Anglo-Saxon to European challenges. High Educ Manag Policy 18(2):1–13. doi: 10.1787/hemp-v18-art11-en CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kobayashi S (2011) The PhD as a professional: current status and issues concerning the early careers of doctorate holders. Jpn Labor Rev 8(4):46–66Google Scholar
  9. Meissner D (2014) Approaches for developing national STI strategies. STI Policy Rev 5(1):34–56Google Scholar
  10. Meissner D (2015) Public-private partnership models for science, technology, and innovation cooperation. J Knowl Econ doi: 10.1007/s13132-015-0310-3
  11. O’Carroll C et al (2012) The PhD in Europe: developing a system of doctoral training that will increase the internationalisation of universities. In: Curaj A, Scott P, Vlasceanu L, Wilson L (eds) European higher education at the crossroads. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 461–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. OECD (2011) Skills for innovation and research. OECD Publishing, ParisGoogle Scholar
  13. OECD (2012) Transferable skills training for researchers: supporting career development and research. OECD Publishing, ParisCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. OECD, World Bank (2007) Cross-border tertiary education: a way towards capacity development. The World Bank/OECD Publishing, Paris/Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  15. Powell K (2013) Higher education: on the lookout for true grit. Nature 504:471–473. doi: 10.1038/nj7480-471a CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Shmatko N (2014) Research teams’ human capital. Series: science, technology and innovation WP BRP 32/STI/2014. Higher School of Economics, Moscow.
  17. Shmatko N, Katchanov Y (2014) Complexity-based modeling of scientific capital: an outline of mathematical theory. Int J Math Math Sci 2014:1–10. doi: 10.1155/2014/785058, ID 785058Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dirk Meissner
    • 1
    Email author
  • Leonid Gokhberg
    • 1
  • Natalia Shmatko
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of KnowledgeNational Research University Higher School of EconomicsMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations