The Meaning of Doctorate Holders for Human Capital Development of Nations
Given the constantly high demand for skilled workers in professions and industries around the world, national governments strive for developing and implementing comprehensive and sustained policy measures to develop human potential of countries. This is especially done by educating people towards tertiary graduates and most recently by enforcing doctoral education and training. The aim of these initiatives is to make highly qualified graduates available to the labor market with the ambition to achieve and maintain sustainable competitiveness of the national labor force (OECD 2011). There is consensus that if countries want to develop and maintain competencies and capacities for science, technology and innovation the education and training system needs to be strengthened at all its levels.
KeywordsLabor Market Labor Force Doctoral Student Skilled Professional National Innovation System
The chapter was prepared within the framework of the Basic Research Program at the National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE) and supported within the framework of a subsidy by the Russian Academic Excellence Project ‘5-100’.
- Carayannis EG, Meissner D, Edelkina A. (2015) Targeted innovation policy and practice intelligence (TIP2E): concepts and implications for theory, policy and practice. J Technol Transfer doi: 10.1007/s10961-015-9433-8
- Devos A, Somerville M (2012) What constitutes doctoral knowledge? Exploring issues of power and subjectivity in doctoral examination. Aust Univ Rev 54(1):47–54Google Scholar
- Gokhberg L, Poliakova V (2014) Innovative activities and skills. In: Dutta S, Lanvin B, Wunsch-Vincent S (eds) The global innovation index 2014. The human factor in innovation. Fontainebleau, Cornell University, INSEAD, WIPO, Ithaca, NY, Geneva, pp 93–99Google Scholar
- Goossens M (2012) What career in industry for engineers with a PhD? CLAIU-EU conference “The Engineering Doctorate”, Madrid, 9–10 Feb 2012. http://claiu.fabi.be/home/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/SEII-CLAIU-2012-Paper-Marc-Goosens1.pdf. Last accessed 25 Jun 2015
- Kobayashi S (2011) The PhD as a professional: current status and issues concerning the early careers of doctorate holders. Jpn Labor Rev 8(4):46–66Google Scholar
- Meissner D (2014) Approaches for developing national STI strategies. STI Policy Rev 5(1):34–56Google Scholar
- Meissner D (2015) Public-private partnership models for science, technology, and innovation cooperation. J Knowl Econ doi: 10.1007/s13132-015-0310-3
- OECD (2011) Skills for innovation and research. OECD Publishing, ParisGoogle Scholar
- OECD, World Bank (2007) Cross-border tertiary education: a way towards capacity development. The World Bank/OECD Publishing, Paris/Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- Shmatko N (2014) Research teams’ human capital. Series: science, technology and innovation WP BRP 32/STI/2014. Higher School of Economics, Moscow. http://www.hse.ru/pubs/lib/data/access/ram/ticket/34/14386992415bace2c8307475951fcb9af47471bbc0/32STI2014.pdf