Factors Affecting Buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus L.) Germination
This study examined the effects of seasonal temperature regimes on Buttonwood Conocarpus erectus L. (Combretaceae) seed germination and how well seeds store under refrigeration vs. ambient temperature. There was no difference in imbibition between scarified and non-scarified seeds, so non-scarified seeds were used for the germination experiments. Seeds were growth chamber germinated to determine which season is most conducive to Buttonwood germination. The growth chamber was set at a day/night (12 h day/12 h night) temperature regime for 3 trials at 28 °C/14 °C, 31 °C/16 °C, and 33 °C/20 °C representing the months of January, April, and July, respectively, on San Salvador Island, The Bahamas. Germination ranged from 0 to 0.12 %, while Timson’s values ranged from 0 to 1.43 out of a possible score of 50. Seeds germinated best at 28 °C/14 °C (January, the coolest month) with 0.12 % germination and a 1.1 Timson’s value. Seeds stored at ambient temperature and refrigerated at 4 °C were germinated at the 28 °C/14 °C regime, and it was found that refrigerated seeds had the best germination.
KeywordsBahamas Buttonwood Conocarpus erectus Germination Seasonal effects Timson’s index
We gratefully acknowledge the Bahamian Department of Agriculture for Permit 07-02 to collect on San Salvador Island; Vincent Voegeli and personnel of the Gerace Research Centre, San Salvador Island, The Bahamas for their help and use of field station equipment and facilities; Sarah Arrowsmith of Elmira College for assistance with the tetrazolium test; J. Forrest Meekins for helpful comments preparing the manuscript; Elmira College, Elmira, NY, USA for research funds to AES and TPE; and Lee B. Kass, Cornell University, for sharing seeds and data.
- Asif M, Saqib M, Yousaf B, Adnan M, Yousaf A, Athar A, Sabir D (2014) Growth and ionic composition of buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus L.) in response to soil salinity and water stress. Adv Life Sci Technol 19:42–52Google Scholar
- Basáñez-Muáñoz AH, Domínguez-Barrada C, Serrano-Solis A, González-Gándra C, Carmona-Díaz G, Cruz-Martinez M (2011) Germinacion de semillas de Conocarpus erectus varsericeus E. Forst. Ex DC en condiciones de laboratorio. Polibotanica 31:61–70Google Scholar
- Baskin CC, Baskin JM (eds) (1998) Seeds, ecology, biogeography, and evolution of dormancy and germination. Academic, San Diego, p 666Google Scholar
- Bonner FT (1974) Seed testing. In: Schopmeyer CS (ed) Seeds of woody plants in the United States. USDA Handbook No. 450, Washington, DC, pp 136–152Google Scholar
- Environmental Growth Chamber (2001) Model G10 growth chamber. Operation and maintenance manual. Chagrin FallsGoogle Scholar
- Francis JK (2007) Conocarpus erectus L. researcher forester, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, International Institute of Tropical Forestry. San Juan, PR. www.fs.fed.us/global/iitf/pdf/shrubs/Conocarpus%20erectus.pdf
- Gamble DW (2003) San Salvador weather data. Laboratory for applied climate research, UNCW. CD ROM. Weather and climate of San Salvador Bahamas. The Bahamian Field Station, Incorporated, San SalvadorGoogle Scholar
- Guppy HB (1917) Plants, seeds, and currents in the West Indies and Azores. Williams and Norgate, Covent Gardens, p 531Google Scholar
- Kass L, Hunt R, Danfort S, Egan TP (2007) Reproductive biology of Buttonwood, a polygamous population on San Salvador. Bahamas Nat J Sci 2:40–49Google Scholar
- Tomlinson PB (1994) The botany of mangroves. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 419Google Scholar