Factors Affecting Buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus L.) Germination

  • Todd P. EganEmail author
  • Alexia E. Strzalka
Part of the Tasks for Vegetation Science book series (TAVS, volume 48)


This study examined the effects of seasonal temperature regimes on Buttonwood Conocarpus erectus L. (Combretaceae) seed germination and how well seeds store under refrigeration vs. ambient temperature. There was no difference in imbibition between scarified and non-scarified seeds, so non-scarified seeds were used for the germination experiments. Seeds were growth chamber germinated to determine which season is most conducive to Buttonwood germination. The growth chamber was set at a day/night (12 h day/12 h night) temperature regime for 3 trials at 28 °C/14 °C, 31 °C/16 °C, and 33 °C/20 °C representing the months of January, April, and July, respectively, on San Salvador Island, The Bahamas. Germination ranged from 0 to 0.12 %, while Timson’s values ranged from 0 to 1.43 out of a possible score of 50. Seeds germinated best at 28 °C/14 °C (January, the coolest month) with 0.12 % germination and a 1.1 Timson’s value. Seeds stored at ambient temperature and refrigerated at 4 °C were germinated at the 28 °C/14 °C regime, and it was found that refrigerated seeds had the best germination.


Bahamas Buttonwood Conocarpus erectus Germination Seasonal effects Timson’s index 



We gratefully acknowledge the Bahamian Department of Agriculture for Permit 07-02 to collect on San Salvador Island; Vincent Voegeli and personnel of the Gerace Research Centre, San Salvador Island, The Bahamas for their help and use of field station equipment and facilities; Sarah Arrowsmith of Elmira College for assistance with the tetrazolium test; J. Forrest Meekins for helpful comments preparing the manuscript; Elmira College, Elmira, NY, USA for research funds to AES and TPE; and Lee B. Kass, Cornell University, for sharing seeds and data.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Mathematics and Natural SciencesElmira CollegeElmiraUSA
  2. 2.UHS Wilson Medical CenterJohnson CityUSA

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