Advertisement

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

  • Leslie Popplewell
Chapter

Abstract

A 56-year-old Chinese-American man previously in excellent health presented with symptoms of abdominal bloating, ascites, drenching night sweats, fatigue, and weight loss of 40 pounds over a period of 2 months. Computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated several masses in the liver, up to 10 cm in size.

Keywords

Overall Survival Overall Response Rate Interim Positron Emission Tomography Relapse DLBCL International Prognosis Index 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Sant M, Allemani C, Tereanu C, et al. Incidence of hematologic malignancies in Europe by morphologic subtype: results of the HAEMACARE project. Blood. 2010;116:3724–3734.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Morton LM, Wang SS, Devesa SS, Hartge P, Weisenburger DD, Linet MS. Lymphoma incidence patterns by WHO subtype in the United States, 1992-2001. Blood. 2006;107:265–276.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Swerdlow SH, Campo E, Pileri SA, et al. The 2016 revision of the World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms. Blood. 2016;127:2375–2390.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alizadeh AA, Eisen MB, Davis RE, et al. Distinct types of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma identified by gene expression profiling. Nature. 2000;403:503–511.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Shipp MA, Ross KN, Tamayo P, et al. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma outcome prediction by gene-expression profiling and supervised machine learning. Nat Med. 2002;8:68–74.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hans CP, Weisenburger DD, Greiner TC, et al. Confirmation of the molecular classification of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma by immunohistochemistry using a tissue microarray. Blood. 2004;103:275–282.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Aukema SM, Siebert R, Schuuring E, et al. Double-hit B-cell lymphomas. Blood. 2011;117:2319–2331.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Barrans S, Crouch S, Smith A, et al. Rearrangement of MYC is associated with poor prognosis in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated in the era of rituximab. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:3360–3365.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cuccuini W, Briere J, Mounier N, et al. MYC+ diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is not salvaged by classical R-ICE or R-DHAP followed by BEAM plus autologous stem cell transplantation. Blood. 2012;119:4619–4624.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Horn H, Ziepert M, Becher C, et al. MYC status in concert with BCL2 and BCL6 expression predicts outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Blood. 2013;121:2253–2263.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Johnson NA, Savage KJ, Ludkovski O, et al. Lymphomas with concurrent BCL2 and MYC translocations: the critical factors associated with survival. Blood. 2009;114:2273–2279.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Savage KJ, Johnson NA, Ben-Neriah S, et al. MYC gene rearrangements are associated with a poor prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with R-CHOP chemotherapy. Blood. 2009;114:3533–3537.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Snuderl M, Kolman OK, Chen YB, et al. B-cell lymphomas with concurrent IGH-BCL2 and MYC rearrangements are aggressive neoplasms with clinical and pathologic features distinct from Burkitt lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2010;34:327–340.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Green TM, Young KH, Visco C, et al. Immunohistochemical double-hit score is a strong predictor of outcome in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30:3460–3467.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hu S, Xu-Monette ZY, Tzankov A, et al. MYC/BCL2 protein coexpression contributes to the inferior survival of activated B-cell subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and demonstrates high-risk gene expression signatures: a report from The International DLBCL Rituximab-CHOP Consortium Program. Blood. 2013;121:4021–4031; quiz 4250.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Johnson NA, Slack GW, Savage KJ, et al. Concurrent expression of MYC and BCL2 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30:3452–3459.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Carbone PP, Kaplan HS, Musshoff K, Smithers DW, Tubiana M. Report of the Committee on Hodgkin’s Disease Staging Classification. Cancer Res. 1971;31:1860–1861.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fletcher CD, Kahl BS. Central nervous system involvement in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: an analysis of risks and prevention strategies in the post-rituximab era. Leuk Lymphoma. 2014;55:2228–2240.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zahid MF, Khan N, Hashmi SK, Kizilbash SH, Barta SK. Central nervous system prophylaxis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Eur J Haematol. 2016;97:108–120.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    A predictive model for aggressive non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The International Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Prognostic Factors Project. New Engl J Med. 1993;329:987–994.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sehn LH, Berry B, Chhanabhai M, et al. The revised International Prognostic Index (R-IPI) is a better predictor of outcome than the standard IPI for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP. Blood. 2007;109:1857–1861.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cheson BD, Fisher RI, Barrington SF, et al. Recommendations for initial evaluation, staging, and response assessment of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: the Lugano classification. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32(27):3059–3068.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Casasnovas RO, Meignan M, Berriolo-Riedinger A, et al. Early interim PET scans in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: can there be consensus about standardized reporting, and can PET scans guide therapy choices? Curr Hematol Malig Reps. 2012;7:193–199.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Moskowitz CH, Zelenetz A, Schoder H. An update on the role of interim restaging FDG-PET in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. Mar 2010;8:347–352.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Moskowitz CH, Schoder H, Teruya-Feldstein J, et al. Risk-adapted dose-dense immunochemotherapy determined by interim FDG-PET in Advanced-stage diffuse large B-Cell lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:1896–1903.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fisher RI, Gaynor ER, Dahlberg S, et al. Comparison of a standard regimen (CHOP) with three intensive chemotherapy regimens for advanced non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:1002–1006.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Coiffier B, Thieblemont C, Van Den Neste E, et al. Long-term outcome of patients in the LNH-98.5 trial, the first randomized study comparing rituximab-CHOP to standard CHOP chemotherapy in DLBCL patients: a study by the Groupe d’Etudes des Lymphomes de l’Adulte. Blood. 2010;116:2040–2045.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Schmitz N, Zeynalova S, Glass B, et al. CNS disease in younger patients with aggressive B-cell lymphoma: an analysis of patients treated on the Mabthera International Trial and trials of the German High-Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group. Ann Oncol. 2012;23:1267–1273.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ruan J, Martin P, Furman RR, et al. Bortezomib plus CHOP-rituximab for previously untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29:690–697.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Vitolo U, Chiappella A, Franceschetti S, et al. Lenalidomide plus R-CHOP21 in elderly patients with untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: results of the REAL07 open-label, multicentre, phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncology. 2014;15:730–737.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Nowakowski GS, LaPlant B, Habermann TM, et al. Lenalidomide can be safely combined with R-CHOP (R2CHOP) in the initial chemotherapy for aggressive B-cell lymphomas: phase I study. Leukemia. 2011;25:1877–1881.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rieger M, Osterborg A, Pettengell R, et al. Primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma treated with CHOP-like chemotherapy with or without rituximab: results of the Mabthera International Trial Group study. Ann Oncol. 2011;22:664–670.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dunleavy K, Pittaluga S, Maeda LS, et al. Dose-adjusted EPOCH-rituximab therapy in primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:1408–1416.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Pfreundschuh M, Trumper L, Osterborg A, et al. CHOP-like chemotherapy plus rituximab versus CHOP-like chemotherapy alone in young patients with good-prognosis diffuse large- B-cell lymphoma: a randomised controlled trial by the MabThera International Trial (MInT) Group. Lancet Oncology. 2006;7:379–391.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hamlin PA, Zelenetz AD, Kewalramani T, et al. Age-adjusted International Prognostic Index predicts autologous stem cell transplantation outcome for patients with relapsed or primary refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Blood. 2003;102:1989–1996.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kewalramani T, Zelenetz AD, Nimer SD, et al. Rituximab and ICE as second-line therapy before autologous stem cell transplantation for relapsed or primary refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Blood. 2004;103:3684–3688.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Vellenga E, van Putten WL, van ’t Veer MB, et al. Rituximab improves the treatment results of DHAP-VIM-DHAP and ASCT in relapsed/progressive aggressive CD20+ NHL: a prospective randomized HOVON trial. Blood. 2008;111:537–543.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    El Gnaoui T, Dupuis J, Belhadj K, et al. Rituximab, gemcitabine and oxaliplatin: an effective salvage regimen for patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell lymphoma not candidates for high-dose therapy. Ann Oncol. 2007;18:1363–1368.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gisselbrecht C, Glass B, Mounier N, et al. Salvage regimens with autologous transplantation for relapsed large B-cell lymphoma in the rituximab era. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:4184–4190.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sauter CS, Matasar MJ, Meikle J, et al. Prognostic value of FDG-PET prior to autologous stem cell transplantation for relapsed and refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Blood. 2015;125:2579–2581.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Crump M, Kuruvilla J, Couban S, et al. Randomized comparison of gemcitabine, dexamethasone, and cisplatin versus dexamethasone, cytarabine, and cisplatin chemotherapy before autologous stem-cell transplantation for relapsed and refractory aggressive lymphomas: NCIC-CTG LY.12. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32:3490–3496.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Philip T, Guglielmi C, Hagenbeek A, et al. Autologous bone marrow transplantation as compared with salvage chemotherapy in relapses of chemotherapy-sensitive non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. N Engl J Med. 1995;333:1540–1545.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bishop MR, Dean RM, Steinberg SM, et al. Clinical evidence of a graft-versus-lymphoma effect against relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Ann Oncol. 2008;19:1935–1940.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Aksentijevich I, Jones RJ, Ambinder RF, Garrett-Mayer E, Flinn IW. Clinical outcome following autologous and allogeneic blood and marrow transplantation for relapsed diffuse large-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2006;12:965–972.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wilson WH, Young RM, Schmitz R, et al. Targeting B cell receptor signaling with ibrutinib in diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Nat Med. 2015;21:922–926.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Nitsu N, Okamoto M, Miura I, Hirano M. Clinical significance of 8q24/c-MYC translocation in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Cancer Sci. 2009;100:233–237.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Oki Y, Noorani M, Lin P, et al. Double hit lymphoma: the MD Anderson Cancer Center clinical experience. Br J Haematol. 2014;166:891–901.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Petrich AM, Nabhan C, Smith SM. MYC-associated and double-hit lymphomas: a review of pathobiology, prognosis, and therapeutic approaches. Cancer. 2014;120:3884–3895.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Herrera AF. Double-hit lymphoma: practicing in a data-limited setting. J Oncol Pract. 2016;12:239–240.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leslie Popplewell
    • 1
  1. 1.DuarteUSA

Personalised recommendations