Advertisement

Fan Experience in Spectator Sports and the Feeling of Social Connectedness

  • Maximilian Stieler
  • Claas Christian Germelmann
Conference paper
Part of the Developments in Marketing Science: Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing Science book series (DMSPAMS)

Abstract

Hedonic consumption is often characterized by joint social experiences (Arnould and Price 1993; Holt 1995). Joint experiences involve sharing emotions with each other (Argo et al. 2008; Ramanathan and McGill 2007) and a certain feeling of belongingness may lead to increased hedonic value (Raghunathan and Corfman 2006). Customers of a hedonic mass service, e.g., spectator sports, may experience a variety of emotions during the course of consumption. These feelings vary from positive to negative, from strongly felt emotions to more subtle feelings, and have an impact on the value that a customer draws from the experience. However, to our knowledge the emotional state that arises because a customer feels connected to the collective of other customers has not been described yet. From the field of community research we know that people may feel relational bonds to others (McMillan 1996; McMillan and Chavis 1986). Such a feeling of connectedness may be viewed as the “emotional glue” between all customers in a spatially and timely limited frame. This emotion is qualitatively and semantically different from other feelings such as joy, fear, or anger and can be seen as a sign of homogeny of the group of customers. Despite the fact that customers differ strongly in psychometric and sociodemographic variables, they are all equal in the characteristic that they form a collective gathering. To a certain extent, a feeling of social connectedness may arise between consumers who do not even know each other.

Keywords

Positive Emotion Social Connectedness Discrete Emotion Feeling State Service Satisfaction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Argo, J. J., Dahl, D. W., & Morales, A. C. (2008). Positive consumer contagion: Responses to attractive others in a retail context. Journal of Marketing Research, 45(6), 690–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnould, E. J., & Price, L. L. (1993). River magic: Extraordinary experience and the extended service encounter. Journal of Consumer Research, 20(1), 24–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117(3), 497–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Biscaia, R., Correia, A., Rosado, A., Maroco, J., & Ross, S. (2012). The effects of emotions on football spectators’ satisfaction and behavioural intentions. European Sport Management Quarterly, 12(3), 227–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boyd, N. M., & Nowell, B. (2014). Psychological sense of community: A new construct for the field of management. Journal of Management Inquiry, 23(2).Google Scholar
  6. Brewer, M. B., & Gardner, W. (1996). Who is this “We”? Levels of collective identity and self representations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71(1), 83–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cacioppo, J. T., & Patrick, W. (2009). Loneliness: Human nature and the need for social connection. New York, London: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  8. Carlson, B. D., Suter, T. A., & Brown, T. J. (2008). Social versus psychological brand community: The role of psychological sense of brand community. Journal of Business Research, 61(4), 284–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clore, G. L., Ortony, A., & Foss, M. A. (1987). The psychological foundations of the affective lexicon. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53(4), 751–766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Derbaix, C., Decrop, A., & Cabossart, O. (2002). Colors and scarves: The symbolic consumption of material possessions by soccer fans. Advances in Consumer Research, 29(1), 511–518.Google Scholar
  11. Derbaix, C. M., & Pham, M. T. (1991). Affective reactions to consumption situations: A pilot investigation. Journal of Economic Psychology, 12(2), 325–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Evans, C. R., & Dion, K. L. (2012). Group cohesion and performance: A meta-analysis. Small Group Research, 43(6), 690–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Glynn, T. J. (1981). Psychological sense of community: Measurement and application. Human Relations, 34(9), 789–818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Havlena, W. J., & Holbrook, M. B. (1986). The varieties of consumption experience: Comparing two typologies of emotion in consumer behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 13(3), 394–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hawkley, L. C., Browne, M. W., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2005). How can I connect with thee?: Let Me count the ways. Psychological Science, 16(10), 798–804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hennig-Thurau, T., Groth, M., Paul, M., & Gremler, D. D. (2006). Are all smiles created equal? How emotional contagion and emotional labor affect service relationships. Journal of Marketing, 70(3), 58–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hirschman, E. C., & Holbrook, M. B. (1982). Hedonic consumption: Emerging concepts, methods and propositions. Journal of Marketing, 46(3), 92–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Holt, D. B. (1995). How consumers consume: A typology of consumption. Journal of Consumer Research, 22(1), 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jahn, S., Drengner, J., Gaus, H., & Cornwell, T. (2011). Connected consumers: The influence of temporal sense of community, socio-emotional experience, and satisfaction on event loyalty. Advances in Consumer Research, 39, 556–558.Google Scholar
  21. Jiangang, D., Fan, X., & Feng, T. (2011). Multiple emotional contagions in service encounters. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 39(3), 449–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Keltner, D., & Haidt, J. (1999). Social functions of emotions at four levels of analysis. Cognition & Emotion, 13(5), 505–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mano, H., & Oliver, R. L. (1993). Assessing the dimensionality and structure of the consumption experience: Evaluation, feeling, and satisfaction. Journal of Consumer Research, 20(3), 451–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mattila, A. S., & Enz, C. A. (2002). The role of emotions in service encounters. Journal of Service Research, 4(4), 268–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McClelland, D. C. (1961). The achieving society. Princeton, NJ: van Nostrand.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. McMillan, D. W. (1996). Sense of community. Journal of Community Psychology, 24(4), 315–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. McMillan, D. W., & Chavis, D. M. (1986). Sense of community: A definition and theory. Journal of Community Psychology, 14(1), 6–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Moors, A. (2009). Theories of emotion causation: A review. Cognition & Emotion, 23(4), 625–662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Moors, A. (2014). Flavors of appraisal theories of emotion. Emotion Review, 6(4), 303–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ng, S., Russell‐Bennett, R., & Dagger, T. (2007). A typology of mass services: The role of service delivery and consumption purpose in classifying service experiences. Journal of Services Marketing, 21(7), 471–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Nowell, B., & Boyd, N. (2010). Viewing community as responsibility as well as resource: Deconstructing the theoretical roots of psychological sense of community. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(7), 828–841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Obst, P., Zinkiewicz, L., & Smith, S. G. (2002). Sense of community in science fiction fandom, Part 1: Understanding sense of community in an international community of interest. Journal of Community Psychology, 30(1), 87–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Oliver, R. L. (1993). Cognitive, affective, and attribute bases of the satisfaction response. Journal of Consumer Research, 20(3), 418–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Páez, D., & Rimé, B. (2014). Collective emotional gatherings: their impact upon identity fusion, shared beliefs, and social integration. In C. von Scheve & M. Salmella (Eds.), Series in affective science. Collective emotions. Perspectives from psychology, philosophy, and sociology (pp. 204–231).Google Scholar
  35. Parkinson, B. (1996). Emotions are social. British Journal of Psychology, pp., 663–683.Google Scholar
  36. Pescosolido, A. T., & Saavedra, R. (2012). Cohesion and sports teams: A review. Small Group Research, 43(6), 744–758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pugh, S. D. (2001). Service with a smile: Emotional contagion in the service encounter. The Academy of Management Journal, 44(5), 1018–1027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Raghunathan, R., & Corfman, K. (2006). Is happiness shared doubled and sadness shared halved? Social influence on enjoyment of hedonic experiences. Journal of Marketing Research, 43(3), 386–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ramanathan, S., & McGill, A. L. (2007). Consuming with others: Social influences on moment‐to‐moment and retrospective evaluations of an experience. Journal of Consumer Research, 34(4), 506–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Richins, M. L. (1997). Measuring emotions in the consumption experience. Journal of Consumer Research, 24(2), 127–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Shaver, P., Schwartz, J., Kirson, D., & O‘Connor, C. (1987). Emotion knowledge: Further exploration of a prototype approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(6), 1061–1086.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tombs, A., & McColl-Kennedy, J. R. (2003). Social-servicescape conceptual model. Marketing Theory, 3(4), 447–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wann, D. L., Dolan, T. J., McGeorge, K. K., & Allison, J. A. (1994). Relationships between spectator identification and Spectators’ perceptions of influence, Spectators’ emotions, and competition outcome. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 16(4), 347–364.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Academy of Marketing Science 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maximilian Stieler
    • 1
  • Claas Christian Germelmann
    • 1
  1. 1.University of BayreuthBayreuthGermany

Personalised recommendations