Virtual Reality Based GIS Analysis Platform
The proposed platform supports the integrated VRGIS functions including 3D spatial analysis functions, 3D visualization for spatial process and serves for 3D globe and digital city. The 3D analysis and visualization of the concerned city massive information are conducted in the platform. The amount of information that can be visualized with this platform is overwhelming, and the GIS-based navigational scheme allows to have great flexibility to access the different available data sources.
KeywordsWebVRGIS WebVR Big data 3D globe
Virtual Reality Geographical Information System (VRGIS), a combination of geographic information system and virtual reality technology  has become a hot topic. By integrating the friendly interactive interface of Virtual Reality System and spatial analysis specialty of Geographical Information System, WebVRGIS [7, 11] based on WebVR  is preferred in practical applications, especially by the geography and urban planning. Accordingly, ‘3-D modes’ has been proved as a faster decision making tool with fewer errors . A parallel trend, the utilize of bigdata is becoming a hot research topic rapidly recently . GIS data has several characteristics, such as large scale, diverse predictable and real-time, which falls in the range of definition of Big Data . As a practical tool, most commonly used functions of VRGIS are improved according to practical needs . For our platform, the customer are the employees of the governmental public service or social service agencies. The junior version of our platform is also planed to open the right to use to public. All the presented functions are extracted from the practical customer needs [8, 10, 12, 16].
This research provides a new effective model of three-dimensional spatial information framework and application for urban construction and development directly, which must significantly improve the technical level and efficiency of urban management and emergency response and bring revolutionary changes to the engineering design and construction management field from two-dimensional drawing to three-dimensional collaborative design and construction.
2 System Information Process
2.1 Three-Dimensional Superficial Analytical Module
Topographic curvature: It is the reflection of change in shape and concave-convex of topographic curved surface at each section direction, and it is the function of plane point location. The topographic curvature includes plane curvature (contour line curvature) and profile curvature (vertical curvature).
2.2 Three-Dimensional Statistical Analysis Module
The spatial correlation analysis mainly focuses on determining the correlation of two or more variables, and the main purpose is to calculate out the degree of correlation and property of relevant variables. The trend-surface analysis is a method in which the spatial distribution and time process of entity features are simulated through mathematical model to predict partial interpolations among actually measured data points of geographic elements under spatial and temporal distribution. Spatial fitting analysis: The so-called fitting refers to the situation that several discrete function values f1,f2,fn of one function are known, and then several undetermined coefficients f(1, 2, 3) in this function are adjusted to realize minimum difference (significance of least squares) between this function and the known point set. If the undetermined function is linear, this process is called linear fitting or linear regression (in statistics); otherwise this process is called nonlinear fitting or nonlinear regression. The expression can be piecewise function; under this condition, the process is called spine fitting. The spatial interpolation mainly includes Kring and inverse distance weighted method. The Kring interpolation method is one of important contents of spatial statistical analysis method; it is established on the basis of theoretical analysis of semi-variable function, and it is a kind of method of carrying out unbiased optimal estimation for regionalized variable value with finite region. The inverse distance weighted (IDW) is based on similarity principle, that is, the closer two objects are, the more similar their property is; on the contrary, the further two objects are, the less similar their property is.
2.3 Three-Dimensional Network Analysis Module
The network analysis is one of core problems of GIS spatial analysis function, and the main task and purpose of GIS network analysis function is to carry out geographic analysis and modeling on geographic network (such as traffic network) and urban infrastructure network (such as various kinds of reticle, power lines, telephone lines, and water supply and drainage lines). The network analysis can be used to research and plan how to arrange a network engineering and realize the best operation effect, such as the optimum allocation of certain resource, the shortest operation time or the least consumption from one place to another place.
Network measurement: It is mainly used to measure the incidence relation between the peak and side or the degree of connectivity between peaks in network diagram. The common measurement indexes include: \(\beta \) index, number of loops k, \(\alpha \) index, and \(\gamma \) index. As for any three-dimensional network diagram, there exist three kinds of common basic indexes: (1) Number of lines (sides or arcs); (2) Number of nodes (peaks); (3) Number of sub-graphs in three-dimensional network.
Optimal path analysis: It refers to realizing the best path selection in three-dimensional network model according to the given parameters. Through establishing three-dimensional path network mode, the users assign starting point and ending point to seek for the nearest path on the network .
Connectivity analysis: It refers to analyzing the ability of keeping connection between nodes in the network. Through connectivity analysis on the three-dimensional network model established, the users can obtain the network connectivity and which nodes are adjacent to the node. In this way, it is able to provide network structure data for actual geographic network such as power distribution network, network reconstruction such as pipeline network, state estimation, and safety analysis.
Network address matching: In essence, it refers to inquiry on geographic position and it involves the address coding. The users can enter address list, street network which contains the range of address, and the property value of address to be inquired; through address matching technology, it is able to carry out contrast and matching for the address information entered by users and the address in standard address library, carry out relevance for matched address data, and show it on the map. The network address matching shall be combined with other network analysis functions to meet the complicated analysis required in actual work.
3 Analysis on Spatial Trend Surface
3D city visualization and analysis platform is a useful tool for the social service agencies and citizens for browsing and analyzing city big data directly, and is agreed upon as being both immediately useful and generally extensible for future applications. The user-need-oriented 3D GIS based smart government portal makes rapid response by real-time and thorough perception of users needs, so as to make timely improvement to the short service board, actively provide convenient, accurate and high-efficiency service to the public and enterprises in online public service.
The authors are thankful to the National Natural Science Fund for the Youth of China (41301439).
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