• Martin LuchtefeldEmail author
  • Rebecca E. Hoedema


Hemorrhoids are one of the most frequent anorectal disorders encountered in the office setting and are responsible for considerable patient suffering and disability. Hemorrhoids that become symptomatic are initially treated conservatively with dietary changes and medical management. Several office-based interventions are also very effective and can benefit the patient with very little risk. Excisional hemorrhoidectomy is considered the gold standard against which the newer surgical techniques are compared, yet all operative procedures aim to alleviate the hemorrhoidal symptoms. The majority of the surgical techniques have very little risk and great benefit to the patient.


Hemorrhoids Hematochezia Prolapse Thrombosis Rubber band ligation Sclerotherapy Infrared photocoagulation Excisional hemorrhoidectomy Anal stenosis Hemorrhage 

Supplementary material

Video 12.1

Excision of a thrombosed external hemorrhoid (MP4 71,842 kb)


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Colon and Rectal SurgerySpectrum Health/Ferguson ClinicGrand RapidsUSA

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