The Potential of the 3D Dual Half-Edge (DHE) Data Structure for Integrated 2D-Space and Scale Modelling: A Review

  • Hairi KarimEmail author
  • Alias Abdul RahmanEmail author
  • Pawel BoguslawskiEmail author
  • Martijn MeijersEmail author
  • Peter van OosteromEmail author
Part of the Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography book series (LNGC)


Scaling factor is one of the most crucial aspect in 2D and 3D models especially in computer graphics, CAD, GIS, and games. Different user or/and application need different scale models during various stages of the use of data, including visualization and interaction. There are some arisen issues on 3D data model especially to meet GIS requirements while minimize the redundancy of the datasets. In GIS modelling, various data structures and data models have been proposed to support variety of applications and dimensionalities, but only a few in scale dimension. Some of them have succeeded in modelling scale such as in Space-Scale Cube (SSC) model. The recently implemented Dual Half-Edge (DHE) data structure within the PostgreSQL database is suitable for any valid 3D spatial model; not yet being explored for other dimensional such as scale environment. Using the same vario-scale approach, the DHE data model is also capable to implement a variable Level of Detail (LoD) representation such as SSC model. Some advantages of the DHE are described in this paper such as the dynamic property (valid updates based on Euler operations) and topology approach in comparison with other existing data structures. The last section of this paper describes capability of the DHE data structure to provide a better platform for GIS integrated space-scale data model.


Scale dimension Data structures Spatial models Level of details 



The authors of this paper would like to thank to MyBrain15 (MyPhD), a program under Ministry of Higher Education (Malaysia) for the sponsorship.

Secondly, thanks to TU Delft (Department of OTB), The Netherlands for accepting the author to have three months research internship.

Finally, this research was also supported by: (i) the Dutch Technology Foundation STW, which is part of the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), and which is partly funded by the Ministry of Economic Affairs (project code 11185); (ii) the European Location Framework (ELF) project, EC ICT PSP Grant Agreement No. 325140.


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.3D GIS Research Laboratory, Faculty of Geoinformation and Real Estate, Department of GeoinformaticUniversiti Teknologi Malaysia Johor BahruJohor BahruMalaysia
  2. 2.FET - Architecture and the Built EnvironmentUniversity of the West of EnglandBristolUK
  3. 3.Department of GIS Technology, OTB Research Institute for the Building EnvironmentDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands

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