Surgery of the Inferior Vena Cava Combined to Liver Resection

  • Chetana Lim
  • Chady Salloum
  • Daniel AzoulayEmail author


Liver resection is the only potentially curative treatment of most malignant liver tumors. Tremendous progresses have been achieved during the last two decades in the field of liver surgery, including neoadjuvant chemotherapy to decrease tumor burden, two-step hepatectomies, repeat hepatectomies, portal vein embolization to increase the volume of the future remnant liver, low central venous pressure technique, and laparoscopic and robotic surgical approaches.


Liver Resection Hepatic Vein Inferior Vena Portal Vein Embolization Future Remnant Liver 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Supplementary material

Video 6.1

Right nephrectomy with inferior vena cava and left renal vein reconstruction for renal cell carcinoma (M4V 298740 kb)

Video 6.2

Resection of the inferior vena cava with end-to-end cavocaval anastomosis for recurrent leiomyosarcoma (WMV 142449 kb)


  1. 1.
    Heaney JP, Stanton WK, Halbert DS et al (1966) An improved technic for vascular isolation of the liver: experimental study and case reports. Ann Surg 163(2):237–241PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Huguet C, Addario-Chieco P, Gavelli A et al (1992) Technique of hepatic vascular exclusion for extensive liver resection. Am J Surg 163(6):602–605PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Huguet C, Nordlinger B, Galopin JJ et al (1978) Normothermic hepatic vascular exclusion for extensive hepatectomy. Surg Gynecol Obstet 147(5):689–693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Delva E, Barberousse JP, Nordlinger B et al (1984) Hemodynamic and biochemical monitoring during major liver resection with use of hepatic vascular exclusion. Surgery 95(3):309–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Huguet C, Gavelli A, Chieco PA et al (1992) Liver ischemia for hepatic resection: where is the limit? Surgery 111(3):251–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Huguet C, Nordlinger B, Bloch P, Conard J (1978) Tolerance of the human liver to prolonged normothermic ischemia. A biological study of 20 patients submitted to extensive hepatectomy. Arch Surg 113(12):1448–1451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bismuth H, Castaing D, Garden OJ (1989) Major hepatic resection under total vascular exclusion. Ann Surg 210(1):13–19PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Delva E, Camus Y, Nordlinger B et al (1989) Vascular occlusions for liver resections. Operative management and tolerance to hepatic ischemia: 142 cases. Ann Surg 209(2):211–218PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vetelainen R, van Vliet A, Gouma DJ, van Gulik TM (2007) Steatosis as a risk factor in liver surgery. Ann Surg 245(1):20–30PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Azoulay D, Eshkenazy R, Andreani P et al (2005) In situ hypothermic perfusion of the liver versus standard total vascular exclusion for complex liver resection. Ann Surg 241(2):277–285PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yamanaka N, Dai CL, Okamoto E (1998) Historical evolution of hypothermic liver surgery. World J Surg 22(10):1104–1107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dinant S, van Veen SQ, Roseboom HJ et al (2006) Liver protection by hypothermic perfusion at different temperatures during total vascular exclusion. Liver Int 26(4):486–493PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Belzer FO, Southard JH (1988) Principles of solid-organ preservation by cold storage. Transplantation 45(4):673–676PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bigelow WG, Lindsay WK et al (1950) Oxygen transport and utilization in dogs at low body temperatures. Am J Physiol 160(1):125–137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Horvath SM, Hutt BK, Spurr GB, Stevens GE (1953) Some metabolic responses of dogs having low body temperature. Science 118(3056):100–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Heijnen BH, Straatsburg IH, Gouma DJ, van Gulik TM (2003) Decrease in core liver temperature with 10 degrees C by in situ hypothermic perfusion under total hepatic vascular exclusion reduces liver ischemia and reperfusion injury during partial hepatectomy in pigs. Surgery 134(5):806–817PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Heijnen BH, Straatsburg IH, Kager LM et al (2003) Effect of in situ hypothermic perfusion on intrahepatic pO2 and reactive oxygen species formation after partial hepatectomy under total hepatic vascular exclusion in pigs. Liver Int 23(1):19–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Longmire WP Jr, Marable SA (1961) Clinical experiences with major hepatic resections. Ann Surg 154:460–474PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hamazaki K, Yagi T, Inagaki M et al (1995) Hepatectomy under extracorporeal circulation. Surgery 118(1):98–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fortner JG, Shiu MH, Kinne DW et al (1974) Major hepatic resection using vascular isolation and hypothermic perfusion. Ann Surg 180(4):644–652PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pichlmayr R, Grosse H, Hauss J et al (1990) Technique and preliminary results of extracorporeal liver surgery (bench procedure) and of surgery on the in situ perfused liver. Br J Surg 77(1):21–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hannoun L, Panis Y, Balladur P et al (1991) Ex-situ in-vivo liver surgery. Lancet 337(8757):1616–1617PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Risher WH, Arensman RM, Ochsner JL, Hollier LH (1990) Retrohepatic vena cava reconstruction with polytetrafluoroethylene graft. J Vasc Surg 12(3):367–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Belghiti J, Dousset B, Sauvanet A et al (1991) Preliminary results with “ex situ” surgery for hepatic tumors: an alternative between palliative treatment and liver transplantation? Gastroenterol Clin Biol 15(5):449–453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Azoulay D, Andreani P, Maggi U et al (2006) Combined liver resection and reconstruction of the supra-renal vena cava: the Paul Brousse experience. Ann Surg 244(1):80–88PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sarkar R, Eilber FR, Gelabert HA, Quinones-Baldrich WJ (1998) Prosthetic replacement of the inferior vena cava for malignancy. J Vasc Surg 28(1):75–81, discussion 82–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Huguet C, Ferri M, Gavelli A (1995) Resection of the suprarenal inferior vena cava. The role of prosthetic replacement. Arch Surg 130(7):793–797PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Arii S, Teramoto K, Kawamura T et al (2003) Significance of hepatic resection combined with inferior vena cava resection and its reconstruction with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene for treatment of liver tumors. J Am Coll Surg 196(2):243–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Maeba T, Okano K, Mori S et al (2001) Retrohepatic vena cava replacement of hepatic malignancies without using total hepatic vascular exclusion or extracorporeal bypass. Hepatogastroenterology 48(41):1455–1460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ohwada S, Kawashima Y, Ogawa T et al (1999) Extended hepatectomy with ePTFE graft vena caval replacement and hepatic vein reconstruction: a case report. Hepatogastroenterology 46(26):1151–1155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kurosawa H, Kimura F, Ito H et al (2004) Right hepatectomy combined with retrohepatic caval resection, using a left renal vein patch graft for advanced cholangiocarcinoma. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 11(5):362–365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ohwada S, Takeyoshi I, Ogawa T et al (1998) Hepatic vein reconstruction at inferior vena cava confluence using left renal vein graft. Hepatogastroenterology 45(23):1833–1836PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Soejima Y, Matsumoto T, Shirabe K, Maehara Y (2011) Tube cavoplasty using autologous vein grafts for resected inferior vena cava reconstruction. Surg Today 43(4):452–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Asai K, Watanabe M, Matsukiyo H et al (2011) Combined hepatic resection with the inferior vena cava and diaphragm and reconstruction using an equine pericardial patch: report of a case. Surg Today 41(12):1670–1673PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Azoulay D, Pascal G, Salloum C et al (2013) Vascular reconstruction combined with liver resection for malignant tumours. Br J Surg 100(13):1764–1775PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Griffith BP, Shaw BW Jr, Hardesty RL et al (1985) Veno-venous bypass without systemic anticoagulation for transplantation of the human liver. Surg Gynecol Obstet 160(3):270–272PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Shaw BW Jr, Martin DJ, Marquez JM et al (1984) Venous bypass in clinical liver transplantation. Ann Surg 200(4):524–534PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Oken AC, Frank SM, Merritt WT et al (1994) A new percutaneous technique for establishing venous bypass access in orthotopic liver transplantation. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 8(1):58–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Tympa A, Theodoraki K, Tsaroucha A et al (2012) Anesthetic considerations in hepatectomies under hepatic vascular control. HPB Surg 2012:720754PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hoti E, Salloum C, Azoulay D (2011) Hepatic resection with in situ hypothermic perfusion is superior to other resection techniques. Dig Surg 28(2):94–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Azoulay D, Lim C, Salloum C et al (2014) Complex liver resection using standard total vascular exclusion, venovenous bypass, and in situ hypothermic portal perfusion: an audit of 77 consecutive cases. Ann Surg 262(1):93–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Delriviere L, Hannoun L (1995) In situ and ex situ in vivo procedures for complex major liver resections requiring prolonged hepatic vascular exclusion in normal and diseased livers. J Am Coll Surg 181(3):272–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Dubay D, Gallinger S, Hawryluck L et al (2009) In situ hypothermic liver preservation during radical liver resection with major vascular reconstruction. Br J Surg 96(12):1429–1436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Forni E, Meriggi F (1995) Bench surgery and liver autotransplantation. Personal experience and technical considerations. G Chir 16(10):407–413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hannoun L, Delriviere L, Gibbs P et al (1996) Major extended hepatic resections in diseased livers using hypothermic protection: preliminary results from the first 12 patients treated with this new technique. J Am Coll Surg 183(6):597–605PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kim Z, Jeong GA, Chung JC et al (2009) Ante-situm liver resection in recurrent liver metastasis from colorectal cancer. Hepatogastroenterology 56(90):508–511PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Malde DJ, Khan A, Prasad KR et al (2011) Inferior vena cava resection with hepatectomy: challenging but justified. HPB (Oxford) 13(11):802–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Raab R, Schlitt HJ, Oldhafer KJ et al (2000) Ex-vivo resection techniques in tissue-preserving surgery for liver malignancies. Langenbecks Arch Surg 385(3):179–184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Vaillant JC, Borie DC, Hannoun L (1998) Hepatectomy with hypothermic perfusion of the liver. Hepatogastroenterology 45(20):381–388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Yamamoto Y (2012) Ante-situm hepatic resection for tumors involving the confluence of hepatic veins and IVC. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci 20(3):313–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Yamamoto Y, Terajima H, Ishikawa Y et al (2001) In situ pedicle resection in left trisegmentectomy of the liver combined with reconstruction of the right hepatic vein to an inferior vena caval segment transpositioned from the infrahepatic portion. J Am Coll Surg 192(1):137–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Moriura S, Nimura Y, Hayakawa N et al (1990) Combined resection of the inferior vena cava for hepato-biliary and pancreatic malignancies. Hepatogastroenterology 37(2):253–255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Aoki T, Sugawara Y, Imamura H et al (2004) Hepatic resection with reconstruction of the inferior vena cava or hepatic venous confluence for metastatic liver tumor from colorectal cancer. J Am Coll Surg 198(3):366–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Nardo B, Ercolani G, Montalti R et al (2005) Hepatic resection for primary or secondary malignancies with involvement of the inferior vena cava: is this operation safe or hazardous? J Am Coll Surg 201(5):671–679PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Neves RJ, Zincke H (1987) Surgical treatment of renal cancer with vena cava extension. Br J Urol 59(5):390–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Langenburg SE, Blackbourne LH, Sperling JW et al (1994) Management of renal tumors involving the inferior vena cava. J Vasc Surg 20(3):385–388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Skinner DG, Pritchett TR, Lieskovsky G et al (1989) Vena caval involvement by renal cell carcinoma. Surgical resection provides meaningful long-term survival. Ann Surg 210(3):387–392, discussion 392–4PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Staehler G, Brkovic D (2000) The role of radical surgery for renal cell carcinoma with extension into the vena cava. J Urol 163(6):1671–1675PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Tsuji Y, Goto A, Hara I et al (2001) Renal cell carcinoma with extension of tumor thrombus into the vena cava: surgical strategy and prognosis. J Vasc Surg 33(4):789–796PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kaplan S, Ekici S, Dogan R et al (2002) Surgical management of renal cell carcinoma with inferior vena cava tumor thrombus. Am J Surg 183(3):292–299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hatcher PA, Anderson EE, Paulson DF et al (1991) Surgical management and prognosis of renal cell carcinoma invading the vena cava. J Urol 145(1):20–23, discussion 23–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Fiore M, Colombo C, Locati P et al (2011) Surgical technique, morbidity, and outcome of primary retroperitoneal sarcoma involving inferior vena cava. Ann Surg Oncol 19(2):511–518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Chiche L, Dousset B, Kieffer E, Chapuis Y (2006) Adrenocortical carcinoma extending into the inferior vena cava: presentation of a 15-patient series and review of the literature. Surgery 139(1):15–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Mihai R, Iacobone M, Makay O et al (2012) Outcome of operation in patients with adrenocortical cancer invading the inferior vena cava—a European Society of Endocrine Surgeons (ESES) survey. Langenbecks Arch Surg 397(2):225–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ohwada S, Izumi M, Tanahashi Y et al (2007) Combined liver and inferior vena cava resection for adrenocortical carcinoma. Surg Today 37(4):291–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    O’Malley KJ, Stuart RC, McEntee GP (1994) Combined resection of the inferior vena cava and extended right hepatectomy for leiomyosarcoma of the retrohepatic cava. Br J Surg 81(6):845–846PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Daylami R, Amiri A, Goldsmith B et al (2010) Inferior vena cava leiomyosarcoma: is reconstruction necessary after resection? J Am Coll Surg 210(2):185–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hollenbeck ST, Grobmyer SR, Kent KC, Brennan MF (2003) Surgical treatment and outcomes of patients with primary inferior vena cava leiomyosarcoma. J Am Coll Surg 197(4):575–579PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hines OJ, Nelson S, Quinones-Baldrich WJ, Eilber FR (1999) Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava: prognosis and comparison with leiomyosarcoma of other anatomic sites. Cancer 85(5):1077–1083PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ito H, Hornick JL, Bertagnolli MM et al (2007) Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava: survival after aggressive management. Ann Surg Oncol 14(12):3534–3541PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kieffer E, Alaoui M, Piette JC et al (2006) Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava: experience in 22 cases. Ann Surg 244(2):289–295PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Mann GN, Mann LV, Levine EA, Shen P (2010) Primary leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava: a 2-institution analysis of outcomes. Surgery 151(2):261–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Mingoli A, Cavallaro A, Sapienza P et al (1996) International registry of inferior vena cava leiomyosarcoma: analysis of a world series on 218 patients. Anticancer Res 16(5B):3201–3205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Barakat O, Hoef J, Ozaki CF, Patrick WR (2007) Extended right trisegmentectomy using in situ hypothermic perfusion with modified HTK solution for a large intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. J Surg Oncol 95(7):587–592PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Davidson BR, Rai R (1999) Prolonged lactic acidosis after extended hepatectomy under in situ hypothermic perfusion. Liver Transpl Surg 5(2):151–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Hamazaki K, Yagi T, Inagaki M et al (1994) Hepatectomy with extracorporeal circulation for liver metastasis from colon carcinoma located at the confluence of the major hepatic vein: a case report. Hepatogastroenterology 41(2):150–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hamazaki K, Yagi T, Katsuta K et al (1995) Extracorporeal circulation and hypothermic perfusion for caval tumor thrombus complicating hepatocellular carcinoma: a case report. Hepatogastroenterology 42(3):282–285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Hemming AW, Cattral MS (1999) Ex vivo liver resection with replacement of the inferior vena cava and hepatic vein replacement by transposition of the portal vein. J Am Coll Surg 189(5):523–526PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hemming AW, Langham MR, Reed AI et al (2001) Resection of the inferior vena cava for hepatic malignancy. Am Surg 67(11):1081–1087, discussion 1087–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hemming AW, Mekeel KL, Zendejas I et al (2013) Resection of the liver and inferior vena cava for hepatic malignancy. J Am Coll Surg 217(1):115–124, discussion 124–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Hemming AW, Reed AI, Fujita S (2006) Ex vivo extended left hepatectomy with caval preservation, temporary portacaval shunt, and reconstruction of the right hepatic vein outflow using a reversed portal vein bifurcation graft. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 13(6):525–529PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hemming AW, Reed AI, Fujita S et al (2008) Role for extending hepatic resection using an aggressive approach to liver surgery. J Am Coll Surg 206(5):870–875, discussion 875–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Hemming AW, Reed AI, Langham MR Jr et al (2004) Combined resection of the liver and inferior vena cava for hepatic malignancy. Ann Surg 239(5):712–719, discussion 719–21PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Hemming AW, Reed AI, Langham MR et al (2002) Hepatic vein reconstruction for resection of hepatic tumors. Ann Surg 235(6):850–858PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Mehrabi A, Fonouni H, Golriz M et al (2011) Hypothermic ante situm resection in tumors of the hepatocaval confluence. Dig Surg 28(2):100–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Nuzzo G, Giordano M, Giuliante F et al (2011) Complex liver resection for hepatic tumours involving the inferior vena cava. Eur J Surg Oncol 37(11):921–927PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Wakabayashi H, Maeba T, Okano K et al (1998) Treatment of recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma by hepatectomy with right and middle hepatic vein reconstruction using total vascular exclusion with extracorporeal bypass and hypothermic hepatic perfusion: report of a case. Surg Today 28(5):547–550PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Yamanaka N, Okamoto E, Fujiwara S et al (1993) Hepatic resection under liver surface or perfusion cooling together with hepatoprotective agents of PGE1 and urinastatin. Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi 94(3):259–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Brekke IB, Line PD, Mathisen O, Osnes S (2003) Extracorporeal surgery and liver autotransplantation. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 123(22):3210–3212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Brekke IB, Mathisen O, Line PD, Hauss HJ (2003) Hepatic autotransplantation with ex situ neoplasm extirpation and vena cava replacement. Hepatogastroenterology 50(54):2169–2172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Chui AK, Rao AR, Wong J et al (2003) Ex situ ex vivo liver resection, partial liver autotransplantation for advanced hilar cholangiocarcinoma: a case report. Transplant Proc 35(1):402–403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Govil S (2013) Liver resection under hypothermic total vascular exclusion. Indian J Gastroenterol 32(4):222–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Gringeri E, Polacco M, D’Amico FE et al (2012) Liver autotransplantation for the treatment of unresectable hepatic metastasis: an uncommon indication-a case report. Transplant Proc 44(7):1930–1933PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Gruttadauria S, Marsh JW, Bartlett DL et al (2005) Ex situ resection techniques and liver autotransplantation: last resource for otherwise unresectable malignancy. Dig Dis Sci 50(10):1829–1835PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Ikegami T, Soejima Y, Taketomi A et al (2008) Extracorporeal hepatic resection for unresectable giant hepatic hemangiomas. Liver Transpl 14(1):115–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Lechaux D, Megevand JM, Raoul JL, Boudjema K (2002) Ex vivo right trisegmentectomy with reconstruction of inferior vena cava and “flop” reimplantation. J Am Coll Surg 194(6):842–845PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Lodge JP, Ammori BJ, Prasad KR, Bellamy MC (2000) Ex vivo and in situ resection of inferior vena cava with hepatectomy for colorectal metastases. Ann Surg 231(4):471–479PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Oldhafer KJ, Lang H, Schlitt HJ et al (2000) Long-term experience after ex situ liver surgery. Surgery 127(5):520–527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Shimahara Y, Yamaoka Y, Morimoto T et al (1998) Surgical treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma: liver resection using transplantation techniques. Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi 99(4):208–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Sugimachi K, Shirabe K, Taketomi A et al (2010) Successful curative extracorporeal hepatic resection for far-advanced hepatocellular carcinoma in an adolescent patient. Liver Transpl 16(5):685–687PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Wen H, Dong JH, Zhang JH et al (2011) Ex vivo liver resection followed by autotransplantation for end-stage hepatic alveolar echinococcosis. Chin Med J (Engl) 124(18):2813–2817Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Yagyu T, Shimizu R, Nishida M et al (1994) Reconstruction of the hepatic vein to the prosthetic inferior vena cava in right extended hemihepatectomy with ex situ procedure. Surgery 115(6):740–744PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Yanaga K, Kishikawa K, Shimada M et al (1993) Extracorporeal hepatic resection for previously unresectable neoplasms. Surgery 113(6):637–643PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Zhang KM, Hu XW, Dong JH et al (2013) Ex-situ liver surgery without veno-venous bypass. World J Gastroenterol 18(48):7290–7295CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Service de Chirurgie Hépato-biliaire, Pancréatique et Transplantation HépatiqueHenri Mondor HospitalCréteilFrance

Personalised recommendations