Proton Transport and pH Control in Fungi

Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 892)

Abstract

Despite diverse and changing extracellular environments, fungi maintain a relatively constant cytosolic pH and numerous organelles of distinct lumenal pH. Key players in fungal pH control are V-ATPases and the P-type proton pump Pma1. These two proton pumps act in concert with a large array of other transporters and are highly regulated. The activities of Pma1 and the V-ATPase are coordinated under some conditions, suggesting that pH in the cytosol and organelles is not controlled independently. Genomic studies, particularly in the highly tractable S. cerevisiae, are beginning to provide a systems-level view of pH control, including transcriptional responses to acid or alkaline ambient pH and definition of the full set of regulators required to maintain pH homeostasis. Genetically encoded pH sensors have provided new insights into localized mechanisms of pH control, as well as highlighting the dynamic nature of pH responses to the extracellular environment. Recent studies indicate that cellular pH plays a genuine signaling role that connects nutrient availability and growth rate through a number of mechanisms. Many of the pH control mechanisms found in S. cerevisiae are shared with other fungi, with adaptations for their individual physiological contexts. Fungi deploy certain proton transport and pH control mechanisms not shared with other eukaryotes; these regulators of cellular pH are potential antifungal targets. This review describes current and emerging knowledge proton transport and pH control mechanisms in S. cerevisiae and briefly discusses how these mechanisms vary among fungi.

Keywords

S. cerevisiae Proton pump Cytosolic pH Organelle acidification pH sensing and growth pH signaling V-ATPase Pma1 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Work in the Kane lab is funded by NIH R01 GM50322. Many thanks to the investigators who provided the decades of work leading to our current understanding of fungal pH transport and pH homeostasis and apologies to all whose work I was unable to cite.

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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular BiologySUNY Upstate Medical UniversitySyracuseUSA

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