Applying Psychology Research to Shopper Mindsets with Implications for Future Symbiotic Search Systems

  • Jane Lessiter
  • Eva Ferrari
  • Alessia Eletta Coppi
  • Jonathan Freeman
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9359)

Abstract

Optimising communications to take account of user states is a nascent, huge and growing business opportunity for the retail and advertising worlds. Understanding people’s behaviours, thoughts and emotions to different messages in different contexts at different times, can inform the strategic planning and design of systems promoting positive customer experiences and increasing retail sales. Using theory combined with applied insights from our projects, this paper highlights a number of factors (mindset, attention, focus, time pressure and salience) that drive ‘search’ behaviour in a dynamic retail based environment. The work has implications for developing symbiotic systems.

Keywords

Salience Perceptual prominence Open Closed Mindset Symbiosis Symbiotic Human-computer Interaction Technology-mediated Affective systems Attention Focus Time pressure Adaptive Responsive Advertising Retail Marketing Shopper Customer 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Ruddick, G.: Waitrose to let shoppers pick discounts in ‘game changing’ move. The Telegraph. www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/retailandconsumer/11681363/Waitrose-to-let-shoppers-pick-discounts-in-game-changing-move.html, June 18, 2015
  2. 2.
    Dhar, R., Kim, E.Y.: Seeing the forest or the trees: Implications of construal level theory for consumer choice. Journal of Consumer Psychology 17(2), 96–100 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gollwitzer, P.M.: Chapter 2. Action phases and mind-sets. In: Higgins, E.T., Sorrentino, R.M., (eds.) Handbook of Motivation and Cognition. Foundations of Social Behavior, vol. 2. The Guilford Press (1990). https://psych.nyu.edu/gollwitzer/90Goll_ActionPhasesMindSets.pdf
  4. 4.
    Schultz, W., Dayan, P., Montague, P.R.: A neural substrate of prediction and reward. Science 275, 15931599 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Balleine, B.W., Dickinson, A.: Goal directed instrumental action: Contingency and incentive learning and their cortical substrates. Neuropsychopharmacology 37, 407–419 (1998)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Frith, C.D., Friston, K.J., Liddle, P.F., Fracowiak, R.S.J.: PET imaging and cognition in schiziphrenia. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 85, 222–224 (1992)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bannon, M.J., Roth, R.H.: Pharmacology of mesocortical dopamine neurons. Pharmacological Reviews 35(1), 53–68 (1983)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Berridge, K.C.: Food reward: Brain substrates of wanting and liking. Neuroscience and Biobehavioural Reviews 20(1), 1–25 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Powell, J., Tait, S., Lessiter, J.: Cigarette smoking and attention to signals of reward and threat in the Stroop paradigm. Addiction 97(9), 1163–1170 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Eysenck, H.J., Eysenck, S.B.J.: Manual of the Eysenck Personality Scales. Hodder and Stoughton (1991)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Carver, C.S., White, T.L.: Behavioural inhibition, behavioural activation, and affective responses to impending reward and punishment: The BIS/BAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 67, 319–333 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Corr, P.J.: The Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of Personality. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Goldsmith, K., Xu, J., Dhar, R.: The power of customers’ mindsets. Sloan Management Review 52(1), 19–20 (2010)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    British Psychological Society. Why we find airports so stressful, July 01, 2011. http://www.bps.org.uk/news/why-we-find-airports-so-stressful
  15. 15.
    Ratcliffe, E., Freeman, J.: Aircraft views in airport environments: Affective appraisals and relationships with attention restoration (in preparation)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Winterman, D.: The surprising uses for birdsong. BBC News Magazine, May 8, 2013. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-22298779
  17. 17.
    Stroud, J.: The fine structure of psychological time. In: Quastler, H. (ed.) Information Theory in Psychology: Problems and Methods, pp. 174–207. Free Press, Glencoe (1955)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hawes, D.K.: The time variable in models of consumer behavior. Advances in Consumer Research 7(1), 442–447 (1980)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Reutskaja, E., Nagel, R., Camerer, C., Rangel, A.: Search Dynamics in Consumer Choice under Time Pressure: An Eye-Tracking Study. American Economic Review 101(2), 900–926 (2011). http://www.rnl.caltech.edu/publications/pdf/reutskaja2011.pdf CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gibridge, T.J., Inman, J.J., Stilley, K.M.: What determines unplanned purchases? A model including shopper purchase history and within-trip dynamics (2013). https://marketing.wharton.upenn.edu/mktg/assets/File/Dynamic%20Effects%20in%20Unplanned%20Purchase%20Behavior%202-18-13.pdf
  21. 21.
    Johnson, P., Gibson, J., Freeman, J.: The Impact of Lookalikes: Similar packaging and fast-moving consumer goods. Research Report for the Intellectual Property Office (2013). http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20140320154249/http://www.ipo.gov.uk/ipresearch-looklikes-310513.pdf
  22. 22.
    Facoetti, A., Molteni, M.: Is attentional focusing an inhibitory process at distractor location? Cognitive Brain Research 10, 185–188 (2000). http://decone.psy.unipd.it/De.Co.Ne_LAB_Unipd/A._Facoetti_files/Cogn%20Brain%20Res%20Facoetti%20%26%20Molteni%202001.pdf CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    James, W.: The Principles of Psychology, vol. 1. Henry Holt and Co., New York (1890)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Posner, M.: Orienting of attention. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 32, 3–25 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Eriksen, C., Rohrbaugh, J.: Some factors determining efficiency of selective attention. The American Journal of Psychology 83(3), 330–342 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Eriksen, C., Hoffman, J.: Temporal and spatial characteristics of selective encoding from visual displays. Perception and Psychophysics 12(2B), 201–204 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nideffer, M.: Test of attentional and interpersonal style. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 34(3), 394–404 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Grier, R.A., Warm, J.S., Dember, W.M., Matthews, G., Galinski, T.L., Szalma, J.L., Parasuraman, R.: The Vigilance Decrement Reflects Limitations in Effortful Attention. Not Mindlessness. Human Factors 45(3), 349–359 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kahneman, D.: Attention and Effort. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs (1973)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Barfield, W., Zeltzer, D., Sheridan, T.B., Slater, M.: Presence and performance within virtual environments. In: Barfield, W., Furness, T.A. (eds.) Virtual Environments and Advanced Interface Design, pp. 473–541. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1995)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lessiter, J., Freeman, J., Keogh, E., Davidoff, J.: A Cross-Media Presence Questionnaire: The ITC-Sense of Presence Inventory. Presence Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 10(3), 282–297 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kuhlthau, C.C.: Seeking Meaning: A Process Approach to Library and Information Services, 2nd edn. Libraries Unlimited, Westport, CT (2004)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jane Lessiter
    • 1
  • Eva Ferrari
    • 1
  • Alessia Eletta Coppi
    • 1
  • Jonathan Freeman
    • 1
  1. 1.Psychology DepartmentGoldsmiths University of LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations