Studying an Author-Oriented Approach to Procedural Content Generation through Participatory Design
The paper describes the design research process of a procedural content generation tool aimed at supporting creative game design processes. An author oriented approach to procedural content generation tools is used where these tools can be manipulated so as to let authors define the design space they want to explore and the design solution they wish to find, therefore maintaining their creative agenda intact. We present two Participatory Design exercises where game designers were tasked with creating a complete Interface Design for an implementation of this approach. Content Analysis from participants’ discourse during these design exercises showed two important results. First, designers have trouble understanding how this procedural content generation works, and how to express their design problem within its conceptual framework. Second, subjects were averse to a pure optimization led approach to content generation and suggested the need for an exploratory phase, where content is created only to grasp the design landscape, without having to specifically define the desired solution.
KeywordsCreativity Support Tools Participatory Design Prototyping Human-Centered Design
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Crabtree, A.: Ethnography in participatory design. In: Proceedings of the 1998 Participatory Design Conference. Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility, pp. 93–105 (1998)Google Scholar
- 3.Craveirinha, R., Roque, L.: Designing games with procedural content generation. In: Proceedings of the ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2015), Seoul, South Korea. ACM (2015)Google Scholar
- 5.Hendrikx, M., Meijer, S., Van Der Velden, J., Iosup, A.: Procedural content generation for games: A survey. ACM Trans. Multimedia Comput. Commun. Appl. 9(1), 1:1–1:22 (2013)Google Scholar
- 6.Lazar, J., Feng, J., Hochheiser, H.: Research Methods in Human-Computer Interaction. Wiley (2010)Google Scholar
- 8.Schuler, D., Namioka, A. (eds.): Participatory Design: Principles and Practices. L. Erlbaum Associates Inc. (1993)Google Scholar
- 9.Sears, A., Jacko, J.: Human-Computer Interaction Development Process. Human Factors and Ergonomics. Taylor & Francis (2009)Google Scholar
- 10.Shaker, N., Yannakakis, G.N., Togelius, J.: Towards Automatic Personalized Content Generation for Platform Games. In: Proceedings of the AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment (AIIDE). AAAI Press (October 2010)Google Scholar
- 11.Smith, A.M., Mateas, M.: Variations forever: Flexibly generating rulesets from a sculptable design space of mini-games. In: IEEE Conference on Computational Intelligence and Games, CIG (2010)Google Scholar
- 12.Togelius, J., Nardi, R.D., Lucas, S.M.: Making racing fun through player modeling and track evolution. In: Proceedings of the SAB, Workshop on Adaptive Approaches for Optimizing Player Satisfaction in Computer and Physical Games, p. 70 (2006)Google Scholar
- 13.Togelius, J., Schmidhuber, J.: An experiment in automatic game design. In: IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Games (CIG 2008), pp. 111–118. IEEE (2009)Google Scholar
- 14.Yannakakis, G.N., Liapis, A., Alexopoulos, C.: Mixed-initiative co-creativity. In: Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Foundations of Digital Games (2014)Google Scholar
- 15.Yannakakis, G.N., Togelius, J.: Experience-driven procedural content generation. IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing 99 (2011) (PrePrints)Google Scholar