Runtime Verification for Hybrid Analysis Tools
In this paper, we present the first steps toward a runtime verification framework for monitoring hybrid and cyber-physical systems (CPS) development tools based on randomized differential testing. The development tools include hybrid systems reachability analysis tools, model-based development environments like Simulink/Stateflow (SLSF), etc. First, hybrid automaton models are randomly generated. Next, these hybrid automaton models are translated to a number of different tools (currently, SpaceEx, dReach, Flow*, HyCreate, and the MathWorks’ Simulink/Stateflow) using the HyST source transformation and translation tool. Then, the hybrid automaton models are executed in the different tools and their outputs are parsed. The final step is the differential comparison: the outputs of the different tools are compared. If the results do not agree (in the sense that an analysis or verification result from one tool does not match that of another tool, ignoring timeouts, etc.), a candidate bug is flagged and the model is saved for future analysis by the user. The process then repeats and the monitoring continues until the user terminates the process. We present preliminary results that have been useful in identifying a few bugs in the analysis methods of different development tools, and in an earlier version of HyST.
This material is based on research sponsored by Air Force Research Laboratory under agreement number FA8750-15-1-0105. The U.S. Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for Governmental purposes notwithstanding any copyright notation thereon. The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of Air Force Research Laboratory or the U.S. Government. This work was also partly supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) as part of the Transregional Collaborative Research Center Automatic Verification and Analysis of Complex Systems (SFB/TR 14 AVACS, http://www.avacs.org/), by the European Research Council (ERC) under grant 267989 (QUAREM) and by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) under grants S11402-N23 (RiSE) and Z211-N23 (Wittgenstein Award).
- 1.Bak, S., Bogomolov, S., Johnson, T.T.: HyST: a source transformation and translation tool for hybrid automaton models. In: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control (HSCC). ACM (2015)Google Scholar
- 4.Nguyen, L.V., Schilling, C., Bogomolov, S., Johnson, T.T.: Poster: Hyrg: a random generation tool for affine hybrid automata. In: 18th International Conference on Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control (HSCC 2015) (2015)Google Scholar
- 5.Yang, X., Chen, Y., Eide, E., Regehr, J.: Finding and understanding bugs in c compilers. In: Proceedings of the 32nd ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation, PLDI 2011, pp. 283–294. ACM, New York (2011)Google Scholar