An Energy Consumption Perspective on Software Architecture

A Case Study on Architectural Change
  • Erik A. JagroepEmail author
  • Jan Martijn E. M. van der Werf
  • Ruvar Spauwen
  • Leen Blom
  • Rob van Vliet
  • Sjaak Brinkkemper
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9278)


The rising energy consumption of the ICT industry has triggered a quest for more sustainable, i.e. energy efficient, ICT solutions. Software plays an essential role in finding these solutions, as software is identified as the true consumer of power. However, in this context, software is often treated as a single, complex entity which fails to provide detailed insight in the elements that invoke specific energy consumption behavior.

In this paper, we propose an energy consumption perspective on software architecture as a means to provide this insight and enable analysis on the architectural elements that are the actual drivers behind the energy consumption. In a case study using a commercial software product, the perspective is applied and its potential demonstrated by achieving an energy consumption saving of 67.1 %.


Software architecture Energy consumption perspective Sustainability 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bass, L., Clements, P., Kazman, R.: Software Architecture in Practice. SEI Series in Software Engineering. Pearson Education (2012)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bozzelli, P., Gu, Q., Lago, P.: A systematic literature review on green software metrics. Technical report, Technical Report. VU University Amsterdam (2013)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Grosskop, K., Visser, J.: Identification of application-level energy optimizations. In: Proceeding of ICT for Sustainability (ICT4S), pp. 101–107 (2013)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kalaitzoglou, G., Bruntink, M., Visser, J.: A practical model for evaluating the energy efficiency of software applications. In: ICT for Sust. (ICT4S 2014). Atlantis Press (2014)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kern, E., Dick, M., Naumann, S., Guldner, A., Johann, T.: Green software and green software engineering-definitions, measurements, and quality aspects. In: On Information and Communication Technologies, p. 87 (2013)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kipp, A., Jiang, T., Fugini, M., Salomie, I.: Layered green performance indicators. Future Generation Computer Systems 28(2), 478–489 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lago, P., Kazman, R., Meyer, N., Morisio, M., Müller, H.A., Paulisch, F., Scanniello, G., Penzenstadler, B., Zimmermann, O.: Exploring initial challenges for green software engineering: summary of the first greens workshop, at icse 2012. ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes 38(1), 31–33 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mills, M.P.: The cloud begins with coal: an overview of the electricity used by the global digital ecosystem. Technical report, Digital Power Group, August 2013Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Murugesan, S.: Harnessing green it: Principles and practices. IT Prof. 10(1), 24–33 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Noureddine, A., Rouvoy, R., Seinturier, L.: Monitoring energy hotspots in software. Automated Software Engineering, pp.1–42 (2015)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Procaccianti, G., Lago, P., Lewis, G.A.: A catalogue of green architectural tactics for the cloud. In: 2014 IEEE 8th Int’l Symp. on the Maint. and Evol. of Service-Oriented and Cloud-Based Systems (MESOCA), pp. 29–36, September 2014Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rozanski, N., E. Woods, E.: Software Systems Architecture: Working with Stakeholders Using Viewpoints and Perspectives. Addison-Wesley (2011)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Runeson, P., Höst, M.: Guidelines for conducting and reporting case study research in software engineering. Empirical Software Engineering 14(2), 131–164 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sun, Y., Zhao, Y., Song, Y., Yang, Y., Fang, H., Zang, H., Li, Y., Gao, Y.: Green challenges to system software in data centers. Frontiers of Comp. Sc. in China 5(3), 353–368 (2011)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    te Brinke, S., Malakuti, S., Bockisch, C., Bergmans, L., Akşit, M.: A design method for modular energy-aware software. In: Proceedings of the 28th Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, pp. 1180–1182. ACM (2013)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zhong, B., Feng, M., Lung, C.-H.: A green computing based architecture comparison and analysis. In: Proc. of the 2010 IEEE/ACM Int’l Conf. on Green Computing and Communications & Int’l Conf. on Cyber, Physical and Social Computing, pp. 386–391. IEEE Computer Society (2010)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erik A. Jagroep
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Jan Martijn E. M. van der Werf
    • 1
  • Ruvar Spauwen
    • 1
  • Leen Blom
    • 2
  • Rob van Vliet
    • 2
  • Sjaak Brinkkemper
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Information and Computing ScienceUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Centric Netherlands B.V.GoudaThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations