Advertisement

International Retirement Migration: Transforming Societies Through Purchasing Power?

Chapter
Part of the IMISCOE Research Series book series (IMIS)

Abstract

Despite a more than 40-year-old tradition of international retirement migration (IRM) in Europe, relatively little social scientific research has been carried out in this field. Retired European migrants have not been considered to be politically controversial (i.e. they are not viewed as having been the causes of social problems or as needy, poor or deprived). Often, the terms used in the 1980s and early 1990s to describe these populations have been linked not to a migration model but to the model of the social agent of a tourist. The chapter is divided into three parts: (1) a general overview of the flows and socio-economic characteristics of IRM in Europe, addressing the main regions of attraction within Europe and the differences in the social profiles of their retirement migrants and an introduction into the wide range of transnational lifestyles and pensioners’ diasporic lives and leisure as part of their well-being; (2) serious social problems related to wellbeing, health care, social isolation in old age and the lack of attention by local authorities regarding the needs of this population as well as the adaptation of local, regional and national care schemes in response to these problems to address the reality of transnational migration, asking such questions as what integration means under the conditions of transnational lifestyle and what institutions are therefore needed; and (3) reflections about processes of social transformation related to IRM and some methodological problems faced by researchers who study this transnational, often unregistered and isolated type of migration.

Keywords

Life Satisfaction Home Country Destination Country Medical Tourism Migrant Child 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Ackers, L., & Dwyer, P. J. (2004). Fixed laws, fluid lives: The citizenship status of post-retirement migrants in the European Union. Ageing and Society, 24(3), 451–475. doi: 10.1017/S0144686X0300165X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alaminos, A., & Santacreu, O. (2009). Living across cultures in a transnational Europe. In E. Recchi & A. Favell (Eds.), Pioneers of European integration: Citizenship and mobility in the EU (pp. 98–119). Cheltenham/Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  3. Bahar, H. I., Laçiner, S., Bal, I., & Özcan, M. (2009). Older migrants to the Mediterranean: The Turkish example. Population, Space and Place, 15(6), 509–522. doi: 10.1002/psp.528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Basch, L., Glick Schiller, N., & Szanton Blanc, C. (1994). Nations unbound: Transnational projects, postcolonial predicaments, and deterritorialized nation-states. Langhorne: Gordon and Breach.Google Scholar
  5. Bauböck, R. (1994). Transnational citizenship: Membership rights in international migration. Aldershot/Brookfield: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  6. Benson, M. (2010). The context and trajectory of lifestyle migration: The case of the British residents of Southwest France. European Societies, 12(1), 45–64. doi: 10.1080/14616690802592605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Benson, M., & O’Reilly, K. (2009). Migration and the search for a better way of life: A critical exploration of lifestyle migration. The Sociological Review, 57(4), 608–625. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-954X.2009.01864.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Božić, S. (2006). The achievement and potential of international retirement migration research: The need for disciplinary exchange. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 32(8), 1415–1427. doi: 10.1080/13691830600928805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Braun, M., & Arsene, C. (2009). The demographics of movers and stayers in the European Union. In E. Recchi & A. Favell (Eds.), Pioneers of European integration: Citizenship and mobility in the EU (pp. 26–51). Cheltenham/Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  10. Breuer, T. (2005). Retirement migration or rather second-home tourism? German senior citizens on the Canary Islands. Die Erde, 136(3), 313–333.Google Scholar
  11. Casado-Díaz, M., Kaiser, C., & Warnes, A. M. (2004). Northern European retired residents in nine southern European areas: Characteristics, motivations and adjustment. Ageing and Society, 24(3), 353–381. doi: 10.1017/S0144686X04001898.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Collett, E. (2013). The integration needs of mobile EU citizens: Impediments and opportunities. Brussels: Migration Policy Institute Europe.Google Scholar
  13. García Andreu, H. (2005). Un acercamiento al concepto de turismo residencial. In T. M. M. Mazón Martinez & A. Aledo Tur (Eds.), Turismo residencial y cambio social: Nuevas perspectivas teóricas y empíricas (pp. 55–70). Alicante: CAM, Obras Sociales.Google Scholar
  14. Gustafson, P. (2001). Retirement migration and transnational lifestyles. Ageing and Society, 21(4), 371–394. doi: 10.1017/S0144686X01008327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gustafson, P. (2008). Transnationalism in retirement migration: The case of North European retirees in Spain. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 31(3), 451–475. doi: 10.1080/01419870701492000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Huber, A. (2003). Sog des Südens. Altersmigration von der Schweiz nach Spanien am Beispiel Costa Blanca. Zurich: SeismoVerlag.Google Scholar
  17. Huber, A., & O’Reilly, K. (2004). The construction of Heimat under conditions of individualised modernity: Swiss and British elderly migrants in Spain. Ageing and Society, 24(3), 327–351. doi: 10.1017/S0144686X03001478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Huete, R., Mantecón, A., & Estévez, J. (2013). Challenges in lifestyle migration research: Reflections and findings about the Spanish crisis. Mobilities, 8(3), 331–348. doi: 10.1080/17450101.2013.814236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. INE. (2013). Explotación estadística del Padrón: Revisión del Padrón Municipal 2013: Datos a nivel nacional, comunidad autónoma y provincia. Madrid: National Statistics Institute. http://www.ine.es
  20. King, R., Warnes, A. M., & Williams, A. M. (2000). Sunset lives: British retirement migration to the Mediterranean. Oxford: Berg Publishers.Google Scholar
  21. Legido-Quigley, H., & McKee, M. (2012). Health and social fields in the context of lifestyle migration. Health & Place, 18(6), 1209–1216. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2012.08.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Legido-Quigley, H., Nolte, E., Green, J., la Parra, D., & McKee, M. (2012). The health care experiences of British pensioners migrating to Spain: A qualitative study. Health Policy, 105(1), 46–54. doi: 10.1016/j.healthpol.2012.02.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mazón Martinez, T. M. M., & Aledo Tur, A. (2005). El dilema del turismo residencial: ¿turismo o desarrollo inmobiliario? In T. M. M. Mazón Martinez & A. Aledo Tur (Eds.), Turismo residencial y cambio social: Nuevas perspectivas teóricas y empíricas (pp. 13–30). Alicante: CAM, Obras Sociales.Google Scholar
  24. Mazón Martinez, T., Aledo Tur, A., Martínez, E., & Arrocha, A. (1996). El turismo inmobiliario en la provincia de Alicante: análisis y propuestas. Alicante: Provincial Tourism Council of Alicante.Google Scholar
  25. O’Reilly, K. (2000). The British on the Costa del Sol: Transnational identities and local communities. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  26. O’Reilly, K. (2001). Blackpool in the sun: Images of the British on the Costa del Sol. In R. King & N. Wood (Eds.), Media and migration: Constructions of mobility and difference (pp. 173–188). London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  27. Oliver, C., & O’Reilly, K. (2010). A Bourdieusian analysis of class and migration: Habitus and the individualizing process. Sociology, 44(1), 49–66. doi: 10.1177/0038038509351627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ramakrishnan, S. K., & Espenshade, T. J. (2001). Immigrant incorporation and political participation in the United States. International Migration Review, 35(3), 870–909. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-7379.2001.tb00044.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rodriguez, V., Fernández-Mayoralas, G., & Rojo, F. (1998). European retirees on the Costa del Sol: A cross-national comparison. International Journal of Population Geography, 4(2), 183–200. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1220(199806)4:2<183::AID-IJPG101>3.0.CO;2-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Simó Noguera, C., & Herzog, B. (2005). El asociacionismo de los residentes europeos en la Comunidad Valenciana. In T. M. M. Mazón Martinez & A. Aledo Tur (Eds.), Turismo residencial y cambio social: Nuevas perspectivas teóricas y empíricas (pp. 427–454). Alicante: CAM, Obras Sociales.Google Scholar
  31. Simó Noguera, C., Herzog, B., & Fleerackers, J. (2013). Forms of social capital among European retirement migrants in the Valencian Community. Migraciones internacionales, 7(1), 131–163.Google Scholar
  32. Sunil, T. S., Rojas, V., & Bradley, D. E. (2007). United State’s international retirement migration: The reasons for retiring to the environs of Lake Chapala, Mexico. Ageing and Society, 27(4), 489–510. doi: 10.1017/S0144686X07005934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Triandafyllidou, A. (2008). Sub-Saharan African immigrant activists in Europe: Transcultural capital and transcultural community building. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 32(1), 93–116. doi: 10.1080/01419870802196021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Warnes, A. M., King, R., Williams, A. M., & Patterson, G. (1999). The well-being of British expatriate retirees in southern Europe. Ageing and Society, 19(6), 717–740. doi: 10.1017/S0144686X9900759X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Sociology and Social AnthropologyUniversity of ValenciaValenciaSpain

Personalised recommendations