International Conference on Combinatorics on Words

WORDS 2015: Combinatorics on Words pp 160-169 | Cite as

Square-Density Increasing Mappings

  • Florin Manea
  • Shinnosuke Seki
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9304)


The square conjecture claims that the number of distinct squares, factors of the form xx, in a word is at most the length of the word. Being associated with it, it is also conjectured that binary words have the largest square density. That is, it is sufficient to solve the square conjecture for words over binary alphabet. We solve this subsidiary conjecture affirmatively, or more strongly, we prove the irrelevance of the alphabet size in solving the square conjecture, as long as the alphabet is not unary. The tools we employ are homomorphisms with which one can convert an arbitrary word into a word with strictly larger square density over an intended alphabet.


Alphabet Size Letter Alphabet Unary Word Positive Rational Number Algebraic Framework 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We appreciate fruitful discussions with James Currie at Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, with Hideo Bannai and Simon Puglisi at the University of Helsinki, and with Nataša Jonoska when she visited Aalto University.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceChristian-Albrechts-Universität zu KielKielGermany
  2. 2.Department of Computer ScienceAalto UniversityAaltoFinland
  3. 3.Helsinki Institute for Information Technology (HIIT)EspooFinland
  4. 4.Department of Communication Engineering and InformaticsUniversity of Electro-CommunicationsChofuJapan

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