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Biology and Assembly of the Bacterial Envelope

  • Karine Dufresne
  • Catherine Paradis-BleauEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 883)

Abstract

All free-living bacterial cells are delimited and protected by an envelope of high complexity. This physiological barrier is essential for bacterial survival and assures multiple functions. The molecular assembly of the different envelope components into a functional structure represents a tremendous biological challenge and is of high interest for fundamental sciences. The study of bacterial envelope assembly has also been fostered by the need for novel classes of antibacterial agents to fight the problematic of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. This chapter focuses on the two most intensively studied classes of bacterial envelopes that belong to the phyla Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. The envelope of Firmicutes typically has one membrane and is defined as being monoderm whereas the envelope of Proteobacteria contains two distinct membranes and is referred to as being diderm. In this chapter, we will first discuss the multiple roles of the bacterial envelope and clarify the nomenclature used to describe the different types of envelopes. We will then define the architecture and composition of the envelopes of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria while outlining their similarities and differences. We will further cover the extensive progress made in the field of bacterial envelope assembly over the last decades, using Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli as model systems for the study of the monoderm and diderm bacterial envelopes, respectively. We will detail our current understanding of how molecular machines assure the secretion, insertion and folding of the envelope proteins as well as the assembly of the glycosidic components of the envelope. Finally, we will highlight the topics that are still under investigation, and that will surely lead to important discoveries in the near future.

Keywords

Bacterial envelope assembly Firmicutes Monoderm Bacillus subtilis Proteobacteria Diderm Escherichia coli Molecular machines Envelope proteins Glycosidic components of the envelope 

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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Microbiology, Infectiology and ImmunologyUniversité de MontréalMontrealCanada

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