Advertisement

Emotions and Feelings in Language Advising Discourse

  • Maria Giovanna TassinariEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Second Language Learning and Teaching book series (SLLT)

Abstract

Although the literature on foreign language learning and second language acquisition (SLA) recognizes the importance of the affective dimension in learning processes, little is known about how to support it throughout the autonomous learning process. One possible way of attending to the affective dimensions could be through language advising. Language advising refers to a special form of learning support in which an adviser helps a learner to organize and reflect on their learning process in individual face-to-face sessions or as an email exchange, often as a complement to self-access learning. Language advising serves as a privileged space for addressing, beside cognitive and metacognitive aspects, affective aspects of language learning. Within the professional and interpersonal relationship between adviser and learner, it is easier to reflect on learners’ emotions and feelings, and their implications for learning. However, in order to focus on affective questions, language advisers need to be able to address them with learners: to react to negative or positive emotions expressed by the learner; to recognize them, even if they are not explicitly mentioned; and to counterbalance them in order to support the language learning process. The present investigation focuses on the expression of emotions and feelings in the learner’s and adviser’s discourse in a language advising setting in higher education. The aim of the study is to shed light on affect in autonomous language learning processes and thus help language professionals to recognize and deal with affective issues as they arise. Based on audio-recordings and transcripts of individual advising sessions, the research design focuses on discourse analysis of the learner’s and the adviser’s discourse. The results show significant expressions of emotions in the learner’s discourse, related both to past learning experiences and to planning further learning steps. In the adviser’s discourse, emotions are less present, and the adviser tends rather to mirror, empathise or counterbalance the learner’s emotions. These findings may help advisers and professionals to better acknowledge the role of emotions and feelings both in the learning and in the advising process and to reflect on their own role in supporting learners to regulate their emotions.

Keywords

Emotions Affect Autonomous language learning Language advising Discourse analysis 

References

  1. Aden, J., Grimshaw, T., & Penz, H. (Eds.). (2010). Enseigner les langues-cultures à l’ère de la complexité: Approches interdisciplinaires pour un monde en reliance. Teaching language and culture in an era of complexity: Interdisciplinary approaches for an interrelated world. Brussels: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  2. Aoki, N. (1999). Affect and the role of teacher in the development of learner autonomy. In J. Arnold (Ed.), Affect in foreign language learning (pp. 142–154). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Arnold, J. (Ed.). (1999). Affect in foreign language learning. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Arnold, J. (2011). Attention to affect in language learning. Anglistik: International Journal of English Studies, 22(1), 11–22.Google Scholar
  5. Arnold, J., & Fonseca-Mora, M. C. (2007). Affect in teacher talk. In B. Tomlinson (Ed.), Language acquisition and development (pp. 107–121). London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  6. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
  7. Benson, P. (2011). Teaching and researching autonomy in language learning (2nd ed.). Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  8. Bown, J., & White, C. (2010). Affect in a self-regulatory framework for language learning. System, 38(3), 432–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brewer, S. S. (2006). Self-influences and foreign language learning: Towards an agentic theory. Retrieved June 22, 2013 from http://www.self.ox.ac.uk/Conferences/2006/Brewer.pdf.
  10. Brewer, S. S. (2010). Un regard agentique sur l’anxiété langagière. In J. Aden, T. Grimshaw & H. Penz (Eds.), Enseigner les langues-cultures à l’ère de la complexité: Approches interdisciplinaires pour un monde en reliance. Teaching language and culture in an era of complexity: Interdisciplinary approaches for an interrelated world (pp. 75–88). Brussels: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  11. Brewer, S. S. (2013). Entre émotions et contrôle de soi: Un enjeu essentiel pour l’autonomie dans l’apprentissage des langues. Lidil, Revue de Linguistique et de Didactique des Langues, 48, 189–208.Google Scholar
  12. Candas, P., & Eneau, J. (2010). Autonomie de l’apprenant et dimensions affectives. In B. Albero & N. Poteau (Eds.), Enjeux et dilemmes de l’autonomie: Une expérience d’autoformation à l’université (pp. 141–167). Paris: Éditions de la maison des sciences de l’homme.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carette, E., & Castillo, D. (2004). Devenir conseiller: Quels changements pour l’enseignant? Mélanges CRAPEL, 27, 71–97. Retrieved April 16, 2015 from http://www.atilf.fr/spip.php?rubrique580.
  14. Carette, E., Melendez Quero, C., & Thiébault, E. (2013). Expressions vocales et traces verbales de l’émotion dans l’entretien de conseil en apprentissage des langues. Lidil, Revue de Linguistique et de Didactique des Langues, 48, 171–187.Google Scholar
  15. Ciekanski, M. (2005). L’accompagnement à l’autoformation en langue étrangère: contribution à l’analyse des pratiques professionnelles. Etude des dimensions langagières et formatives des pratiques dites « de conseil » dans des systèmes d’apprentissage autodirigé en LE. Doctoral thesis. Nancy: Université Nancy2. Retrieved April 30, 2015 from https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00398940/.
  16. Ciekanski, M. (2007). Fostering learner autonomy: Power and reciprocity in the relationship between language learner and language learning adviser. Cambridge Journal of Education, 37(1), 111–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Damasio, A. R. (2002). A second chance for emotion. In L. Nadel & R. D. Lane (Eds.), Cognitive neurosciences of emotions (pp. 12–23). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Dewaele, J.-M. (2010). Emotions in multiple languages. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  19. Dewaele, J.-M. (2011). Emotional and psychological aspects of foreign language learning and use. Anglistik: International Journal of English Studies, 22(1), 23–42.Google Scholar
  20. Dörnyei, Z. (2009). The L2 motivational self system. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 9–42). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  21. Dörnyei, Z., & Ushioda, E. (Eds.). (2009). Motivation, language identity and the L2 self. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  22. Ekman, P. (2003). Emotions revealed: Recognizing faces and feelings to improve communication and emotional life (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Owl Books.Google Scholar
  23. Fontaine, J. R. J., Scherer, K. R., & Soriano, C. (Eds.). (2013). Components of emotional meaning: A source book. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Garrett, P., & Young, R. (2009). Theorizing affect in foreign language learning: An analysis of one learner’s response to a communicative-based Portuguese course. The Modern Language Journal, 93(2), 209–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Graff, U. (2003). Selbstevaluative Forschung in einem feministischen Projekt: Überlegungen zu einem Prozeß in Nähe und Distanz. In B. Friebertshäuser & H. Prengel (Eds.), Handbuch Qualitative Forschungsmethoden in der Erziehungswissenschaft: Studienausgabe (pp. 731–744). Weinheim: Juventa.Google Scholar
  26. Goetz, T., Frenzel, A., Pekrun, R., & Hall, N. (2005). Emotional intelligence in the context of learning and achievement. In R. Schulze & R. Roberts (Eds.), Emotional intelligence: An international handbook (pp. 233–253). Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe and Huber.Google Scholar
  27. Gremmo, M.-J. (1995). Conseiller n’est pas enseigner: Le rôle du conseiller dans l’entretien de conseil. Mélanges CRAPEL, 22, 33–62. Retrieved April 16, 2015 from http://www.atilf.fr/spip.php?rubrique557.
  28. Gross, J. J. (2008). Emotion regulation. In M. Lewis, J. M. Haviland-Jones, & L. Feldman Barrett (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (pp. 497–512). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  29. Holec, H. (1981). Autonomy in foreign language learning. Oxford, UK: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  30. Horwitz, E. K. (2001). Language anxiety and achievement. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 21, 112–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Huitt, W. (1999). Conation as an important factor of mind. Education Psychology Interactive. Retrieved April 16, 2015 from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/conation/conation.html.
  32. Kalaja, P., & Barcelos, A. M. (Eds.). (2006). Beliefs about SLA: New research approaches. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  33. Kehrein, R. (2002). Prosodie und Emotionen. Tübingen: Niemeyer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kelly, R. (1996). Language counselling for learner autonomy: The skilled helper in self-access language learning. In R. Pemberton, E. S. L. Li, W. W. F. Or, & H. Pierson (Eds.), Taking control: Autonomy in language learning (pp. 93–113). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Kleppin, K., & Spänkuch, E. (2014). Konzepte und Begriffe im Umfeld von Sprachlernberatung—Aufräumarbeiten im terminologischen Dschungel. In A. Berndt & R. U. Deutschmann (Eds.), Sprachlernberatung—Sprachlerncoaching (pp. 33–50). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  36. Kramsch, C. (1993). Context and culture in language teaching. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Kramsch, C. (2009). The multilingual subject: What foreign language learners say about their experiences and why it matters. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Kramsch, C. (2010). Foreword. In J. Aden, T. Grimshaw & H. Penz (Eds.), Enseigner les langues-cultures à l’ère de la complexité: Approches interdisciplinaires pour un monde en reliance. Teaching language and culture in an era of complexity: Interdisciplinary approaches for an interrelated world (pp. 11–13). Brussels: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  39. Lantolf, J. P. (2013). Sociocultural theory and the dialectic of L2 learner autonomy/agency. In P. Benson & L. Cooker (Eds.), The applied linguistic individual: Sociocultural approaches to identity, agency and autonomy (pp. 17–31). Sheffield, UK: Equinox.Google Scholar
  40. LeDoux, J. (1996). The emotional brain. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  41. Little, D. (1991). Learner autonomy 1: Definitions, issues and problems. Dublin, Ireland: Authentik.Google Scholar
  42. Mayring, P. (2000). Qualitative content analysis. Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 1(2). Retrieved April 16, 2015 from http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/1089/2385.
  43. Mercer, S., & Williams, M. (Eds.). (2014). Multiple perspectives on the self in SLA. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  44. Mozzon-McPherson, M. (2004). Language advising. Subject Centre for Languages, Linguistics and Area Studies Good Practice Guide. Retrieved April 16, 2015 from https://www.llas.ac.uk/resources/gpg/93.
  45. Murray, G. (Ed.). (2014). Social dimensions of autonomy in language learning. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  46. Murray, G., Gao, X., & Lamb, T. (Eds.). (2011). Identity, motivation and autonomy in language learning. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  47. Mynard, J., & Carson, L. (Eds.). (2012). Advising in language learning: Dialogue, tools and context. Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  48. Oxford, R. L. (2012). Teaching and researching language learning strategies. Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  49. Plutchik, R. (1980). A general psychoevolutionary theory of emotion. In R. Plutchik & H. Kellerman (Eds.), Emotion: Theory, research, and experience (Vol. 1, pp. 3–33)., Theories of emotion New York, NY: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Rintell, E. (1984). But how did you feel about that? The learner’s perception of emotion in speech. Applied Linguistics, 5(3), 255–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Russell, J. (1991). Culture and the categorization of emotions. Psychological Bulletin, 110(3), 426–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Scherer, K. R. (1994). Toward a concept of “modal emotions”. In P. Ekman & R. J. Davidson (Eds.), The nature of emotion: Fundamental questions (pp. 25–31). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Schumann, J. (1999). A perspective on affect. In J. Arnold (Ed.), Affect in foreign language learning (pp. 28–41). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Selting, M., Auer, P., Barth-Weingarten, D., Bergmann, J., Bergmann, P., Birkner, K., … Uhmann, S. (2009). Gesprächsanalytisches Transkriptionssystem 2 (GAT 2). Gesprächsforschung—Online-Zeitschrift zur verbalen Interaktion, 10, 353–402. Retrieved April 16, 2015 from http://www.gespraechsforschung-ozs.de/heft2009/px-gat2.pdf.
  55. Silvia, P. J. (2008). Interest—the curious emotion. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17, 57–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Stern, H. H. (1983). Fundamental concepts of language teaching. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Tassinari, M. G. (2010). Autonomes Fremdsprachenlernen: Komponenten, Kompetenzen, Strategien. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  58. Tassinari, M. G. (2014). Emotionen und Gefühle in der Sprachlernberatung: Vorüberlegungen zu einer forschungsfrage. In A. Berndt & R. U. Deutschmann (Eds.), Sprachlernberatung—Sprachlerncoaching (pp. 151–164).Google Scholar
  59. Tassinari, M. G., & Ciekanski, M. (2013). Accessing the self in self-access learning: Emotions and feelings in language advising. Studies in Self-Access Learning Journal, 4(4), 262–280. Retrieved April 16, 2015 from http://sisaljournal.org/archives/dec13/.
  60. Thirioux, B., & Berthoz, A. (2010). Phenomenology and physiology of empathy and sympathy: How intersubjectivity is correlate of objectivity. In J. Aden, T. Grimshaw, & H. Penz (Eds.), Enseigner les langues-cultures à l’ère de la complexité: Approches interdisciplinaires pour un monde en reliance. Teaching language and culture in an era of complexity: Interdisciplinary approaches for an interrelated world (pp. 45–60). Brussels: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  61. Ulich, D., & Mayring, P. (2003). Psychologie der Emotionen (2nd ed.). Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Freie Universität BerlinBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations