Advertisement

Four Eyes See More Than Two: Shared Gaze in the Car

  • Sandra Trösterer
  • Magdalena Gärtner
  • Martin Wuchse
  • Bernhard Maurer
  • Axel Baumgartner
  • Alexander Meschtscherjakov
  • Manfred Tscheligi
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9297)

Abstract

Purposeful collaboration of driver and front-seat passenger can help in demanding driving situations and therefore increase safety. The characteristics of the car, as a context, limit the collaboration possibilities of the driver and front-seat passenger, though. In this paper, we present an approach that supports successful collaboration of the driver and front-seat passenger with regard to the contextual specifics. By capturing the front-seat passenger’s gaze and visualizing it for the driver, we create a collaborative space for information sharing in the car. We present the results from a study investigating the potentials of the co-driver’s gaze as means to support the driver during a navigational task. Our results confirm that the co-driver’s gaze can serve as helpful means to support the collaboration of driver and front-seat passenger in terms of perceived distraction and workload of the driver.

Keywords

Driving Navigation Collaboration Shared gaze Eye-tracking 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The financial support by the Federal Ministry of Economy, Family and Youth, the National Foundation for Research, Technology and Development and AUDIO MOBIL Elektronik GmbH is gratefully acknowledged (Christian Doppler Laboratory for “Contextual Interfaces”).

References

  1. 1.
    Bergasa, L., Nuevo, J., Sotelo, M., Barea, R., Lopez, M.: Real- time system for monitoring driver vigilance. IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst. 7(1), 63–77 (2006). IEEE Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bhavya, B., Alice Josephine, R.: Intel-eye: an innovative system for accident detection, warning and prevention using image processing. Int. J. Comput. Commun. Eng. 2(2), 189–193 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brennan, S.E., Chen, X., Dickinson, C.A., Neider, M.B., Zelinsky, G.J.: Coordinating cognition: the costs and benefits of shared gaze during collaborative search. Cognition 106(3), 1465–1477 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bryden, K.J., Charlton, J., Oxley, J., Lowndes, G.: Older driver and passenger collaboration for wayfinding in unfamiliar areas. Int. J. Behav. Dev. 38(4), 378–385 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Crundall, D.: The integration of top-down and bottom-up factors in visual search during driving. In: Underwood, G. (ed.) Cognitive Processes in Eye Guidance, pp. 283–302. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fletcher, L., Zelinsky, A.: Driver inattention detection based on eye gaze-road event correlation. Int. J. Robot. Res. 28(6), 774–801 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Forlizzi, J., Barley, W.C., Seder, T.: Where should I turn: moving from individual to collaborative navigation strategies to inform the interaction design of future navigation systems. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 1261–1270. ACM, New York (2010)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gärtner, M., Meschtscherjakov, A., Maurer, B., Wilfinger, D., Tscheligi, M.: “Dad, stop crashing my car!”: making use of probing to inspire the design of future in-car interfaces. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications (AutomotiveUI 2014), article 27, pp. 1–8. ACM, New York (2014)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gridling, N., Meschtscherjakov, A., Tscheligi, M.: I need help!: exploring collaboration in the car. In: Proceedings of the ACM 2012 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work Companion, CSCW 2012, pp. 87–90. ACM, New York (2012)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Juhlin, O.: Social media on the road: mobile technologies and future traffic research. IEEE MultiMedia 18(1), 8–10 (2011). IEEE Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kern, D., Mahr, A., Castronovo, S., Schmidt, A., Müller, C.: Making use of drivers’ glances onto the screen for explicit gaze-based interaction. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, AutomotiveUI 2010, pp. 110–116. ACM, New York (2010)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Knobel, M., Hassenzahl, M., Lamara, M., Sattler, T., Schumann, J., Eckoldt, K., Butz A.: Clique trip: feeling related in different cars. In: Proceedings of the Designing Interactive Systems Conference, DIS 2012, pp. 29–37. ACM, New York (2012)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Land, M.F., Tatler, B.W.: Looking and Acting: Vision and Eye Movements in Natural Behaviour. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mattes, S.: The Lane Change Task as a Tool for Driver Distraction Evaluation. IHRA-ITS Workshop on Driving Simulator Scenarios (2003). http://www.nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/IHRA/ITS/MATTES.pdf
  15. 15.
    Maurer, B., Trösterer, S., Gärtner, M., Wuchse, M., Baumgartner, A., Meschtscherjakov, A., Wilfinger, D., Tscheligi, M.: Shared gaze in the car: towards a better driver-passenger collaboration. In: Adjunct Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications (AutomotiveUI 2014), pp. 1–6. ACM, New York (2014)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mayring, P.: Qualitative content analysis. In: Flick, U., von Kardorff, E., Steinke, I. (eds.) A Companion To Qualitative Research, pp. 266–269. SAGE Publications Ltd, London (2004)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Moniri, M.M., Feld, M., Müller, C.: Personalized in-vehicle information systems: building an application infrastructure for smart cars in smart spaces. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Intelligent Environments, IE 2012, pp. 379–382. IEEE, New York (2012)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Moniri, M.M., Müller, C.: Multimodal reference resolution for mobile spatial interaction in urban environments. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, AutomotiveUI 2012, pp. 241–248. ACM, New York (2012)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Neider, M.B., Chen, X., Dickinson, C.A., Brennan, S.E., Zelinsky, G.J.: Coordinating spatial referencing using shared gaze. Psychon. Bull. Rev. 17(5), 718–724 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pauzié, A.: A method to assess the driver mental workload: the driving activity load index (DALI). IET Intel. Transport Syst. 2(4), 315–322 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Warkentin, M.E., Luftus, S., Hightower, R.: Virtual teams versus face-to-face teams: an exploratory study of a web-based conference system. Decis. Sci. 28(4), 975–996 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sandra Trösterer
    • 1
  • Magdalena Gärtner
    • 1
  • Martin Wuchse
    • 1
  • Bernhard Maurer
    • 1
  • Axel Baumgartner
    • 1
  • Alexander Meschtscherjakov
    • 1
  • Manfred Tscheligi
    • 1
  1. 1.Christian Doppler Laboratory “Contextual Interfaces”, Center for Human-Computer InteractionUniversity of SalzburgSalzburgAustria

Personalised recommendations