Melanoma pp 17-49 | Cite as

Melanoma Epidemiology and Prevention

  • Marianne BerwickEmail author
  • David B. Buller
  • Anne Cust
  • Richard Gallagher
  • Tim K. Lee
  • Frank Meyskens
  • Shaily Pandey
  • Nancy E. Thomas
  • Marit B. Veierød
  • Sarah Ward
Part of the Cancer Treatment and Research book series (CTAR, volume 167)


The epidemiology of melanoma is complex, and individual risk depends on sun exposure, host factors, and genetic factors, and in their interactions as well. Sun exposure can be classified as intermittent, chronic, or cumulative (overall) exposure, and each appears to have a different effect on type of melanoma. Other environmental factors, such as chemical exposures—either through occupation, atmosphere, or food—may increase risk for melanoma, and this area warrants further study. Host factors that are well known to be important are the numbers and types of nevi and the skin phenotype. Genetic factors are classified as high-penetrant genes, moderate-risk genes, or low-risk genetic polymorphisms. Subtypes of tumors, such as BRAF-mutated tumors, have different risk factors as well as different therapies. Prevention of melanoma has been attempted using various strategies in specific subpopulations, but to date optimal interventions to reduce incidence have not emerged.


Epidemiology Risk factors Genetic factors Host characteristics Prevention 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marianne Berwick
    • 1
    Email author
  • David B. Buller
    • 2
  • Anne Cust
    • 3
  • Richard Gallagher
    • 4
  • Tim K. Lee
    • 4
  • Frank Meyskens
    • 5
  • Shaily Pandey
    • 6
  • Nancy E. Thomas
    • 7
  • Marit B. Veierød
    • 8
  • Sarah Ward
    • 9
  1. 1.Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA
  2. 2.Klein Buendel, Inc.GoldenUSA
  3. 3.Sydney School of Public Health, Sydney Medical SchoolUniversity of SydneyCamperdownAustralia
  4. 4.Cancer Control Research ProgramBC Cancer AgencyVancouverCanada
  5. 5.Public Health and EpidemiologyUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA
  6. 6.Mount Sinai School of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  7. 7.University of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA
  8. 8.Department of BiostatisticsInstitute of Basic Medical SciencesOsloNorway
  9. 9.Centre for Genetic Origins of Health and Disease (GOHaD)The University of Western AustraliaCrawleyAustralia

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