A Knowledge Extraction and Management Component to Support Spontaneous Participation

  • Lukasz Porwol
  • Islam Hassan
  • Adegbojega Ojo
  • John Breslin
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9249)


Harnessing spontaneous contributions of citizens on Social Media and networking sites is a major feature of the next generation citizen-led e-Participation paradigm. However, extracting information of interest from Social Media streams is a challenging task and requires support from domain specific language resources such as lexica. This work describes our efforts at developing a Knowledge Extraction and Management component which employs a lexicon for extracting information related to public services in Social Media contents or streams as part of a holistic technology infrastructure for citizen-led e-Participation. Our approach consists of three basic steps – (1) acquisition and refinement of public service catalogues, (2) organization of the public service names into a lexicon based on different semantic similarity measures and (3) development of a dictionary-based Named Entity Recognizer (NER) or “spotter” based on the lexicon. We evaluate the performance of the NER solution supported by contextual information generated by two well-known general-purpose information NER tools (DBpedia Spotlight and Alchemy) on a dataset of tweets. Results show that our strategy to domain specific information extraction from Social Media is effective. We conclude with a scenario on how our approach could be scaled-up to extract other types of information from citizen discussions on Social Media.


e-Participation Citizen-led e-Participation Information extraction (IE) Natural Language Processing (NLP) Public services e-Government 


  1. 1.
    Sæbø, O., Rose, J., Skiftenesflak, L.: The shape of eParticipation: characterizing an emerging research area. Gov. Inf. Q. 25, 400–428 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chadwick, A.: Bringing e-democracy back in: why it matters for future research on e-governance. Soc. Sci. Comput. Rev. 21, 443–455 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Porwol, L., Ojo, A., Breslin, J.: On the duality of e-participation – towards a foundation for citizen-led participation. In: Kö, A., Leitner, C., Leitold, H., Prosser, A. (eds.) EDEM 2013 and EGOVIS 2013. LNCS, vol. 8061, pp. 211–225. Springer, Heidelberg (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Grishman, R.: Message understanding conference-6: a brief history. In: Proceedings of COLING 1996 (1996)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Porwol, L., Ojo, A., Breslin, J.: Harnessing the duality of e-participation. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance - ICEGOV 2013, pp. 289–298 (2013)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Reuter, C., Marx, A.: Social software as an infrastructure for crisis management - a case study about current practice and potential usage. In: Proceedings of 8th International ISCRAM Conference, pp. 1–10 (2011)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    O’reilly, T.: What is web 2.0: design patterns and business models for the next generation of software. Commun. Strateg. 65, 17–37 (2007)MATHGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Macintosh, A., Coleman, S., Schneeberger, A.: eParticipation: the research gaps. In: Macintosh, A., Tambouris, E. (eds.) ePart 2009. LNCS, vol. 5694, pp. 1–11. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chang, A.: Leveraging Web 2.0 in Government. E-Government/Technology Series Leveraging Web 2.0 in GovernmentGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Panopoulou, E., Tambouris, E., Tarabanis, K.: eParticipation initiatives in Europe: learning from practitioners. In: Tambouris, E., Macintosh, A., Glassey, O. (eds.) ePart 2010. LNCS, vol. 6229, pp. 54–65. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Charalabidis, Y., Loukis, E.: Transforming Government Agencies’ Approach to eParticipation through Efficient Exploitation of Social Media. In: ECIS 2011 (2011)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Agichtein, E., Castillo, C., Donato, D., Gionis, A., Mishne, G.: Finding high-quality content in social media. In: Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Web Search and Data Mining - WSDM 2008, p. 183 (2008)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Claes, A., Sizov, S., Angeletou, S., Taylor, S., Wandhoefer, T.: WeGOV project: where eGovernment meets the eSociety. In: Initial WeGov toolbox, pp. 1–65 (2010)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Effing, R., Van Hillegersberg, J., Huibers, T.: Social media and political participation: are Facebook, Twitter and YouTube democratizing our political systems? Electron. Participation 6847, 25–35 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Moreira, A.M., Ladner, A.: E-Society and e-democracy. Media (2009)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kuzma, J.: Asian Government Usage of Web 2.0 Social Media. Sites J. 20th Century Contemp. French Stud. 1–13 (2010)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ashley, H., Corbett, J., Jones, D., Garside, B., Rambaldi, G.: Change at hand: web 2.0 for development. In: Participatory Learning and Action, vol. 59, pp. 8–20. IIED (2009)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Makinen, M., Kuira, M.W.: Social media and postelection crisis in Kenya. Int. J. Press/Polit. 13, 328–335 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gao, H., Barbier, G., Goolsby, R.: Harnessing the crowdsourcing power of social media for disaster relief. IEEE Intell. Syst. 26, 10–14 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Berners-Lee, T., Hendler, J., Lassila, O.: The semantic web. Sci. Am. 5, 28–37 (2001)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schreiber, R., Swick, G.: Semantic web best practices and deployment working group (2006)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Frank, M., Eric, M.: RDF primerGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wimmer, M.A.: Ontology for an e-participation virtual resource centre. In: Proceedings of the 1st international conference on Theory and practice of electronic governance - ICEGOV 2007, p. 89 (2007)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Loutas, N., Lee, D., Maali, F., Peristeras, V., Tarabanis, K.: The semantic public service portal (S-PSP). In: Antoniou, G., Grobelnik, M., Simperl, E., Parsia, B., Plexousakis, D., De Leenheer, P., Pan, J. (eds.) ESWC 2011, Part II. LNCS, vol. 6644, pp. 227–242. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ojo, A., Estevez, E., Janowski, T.: Semantic interoperability architecture for Governance 2.0. Inf. Polity 15, 105–123 (2010)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Embley, D.W., Campbell, D.M., Smith, R.D., Liddle, S.W.: Ontology-based extraction and structuring of information from data-rich unstructured documents. In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management - CIKM 1998, pp. 52–59. ACM Press, New York (1998)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Alani, H., Kim, S., Millard, D.E., Weal, M.J., Hall, W., Lewis, P.H., Shadbolt, N.: Web based Knowledge Extraction and Consolidation for Automatic Ontology Instantiation. In: proceedings of the Workshop on Knowledge Markup and Semantic Annotation at the second International Conference on Knowledge Capture (K-Cap 2003) (2003)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bikel, D.M., Miller, S., Schwartz, R., Weischedel, R.: Nymble. In: Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Applied Natural Language Processing, pp. 194–201. Association for Computational Linguistics, Morristown (1997)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Etzioni, O., Cafarella, M., Downey, D., Popescu, A.-M., Shaked, T., Soderland, S., Weld, D.S., Yates, A.: Unsupervised named-entity extraction from the web: an experimental study. Artif. Intell. 165, 91–134 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Soderland, S.: Learning information extraction rules for semi-structured and free text. Mach. Learn. 34, 233–272 (1999)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dalvi, B., Cohen, W., Callan, J.: Websets: Extracting sets of entities from the web using unsupervised information extraction. In: Proceedings of the Fifth ACM International Conference on Web Search and Data Mining. ACM (2012)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Alfonseca, E., Manandhar, S.: An unsupervised method for general named entity recognition and automated concept discovery. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on General WordNet, Mysore (2002)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mccrae, J., Aguado-de-Cea, G., Buitelaar, P., Cimiano, P., Asunci, D., Gracia, J., Hollink, L., Tobias, M.D.S.: Interchanging lexical resources on the semantic web. Lang. Resour. Eval. 46, 701–719 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hevner, A., Chatterjee, S.: Design Research in Information Systems. Integrated Series in Information Systems, pp. 9–23. Springer, Boston (2010)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Peffers, K., Tuunanen, T., Rothenberger, M.A., Chatterjee, S.: A design science research methodology for information systems research. J. Manage. Inf. Syst. 24, 45–77 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gabrilovich, E., Markovitch, S.: Computing semantic relatedness using wikipedia-based explicit semantic analysis. In: IJCAI International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pp. 1606–1611 (2007)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lane, M., Coleman, P.: Technology ease of use through social networking media. Technology 1–12 (2012)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hagen, L., Harrison, T.M., Uzuner, Ö., Fake, T., Lamanna, D.: Introducing textual analysis tools for policy informatics: a case study of e-petitions. In: Proceedings of the 16th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research, pp. 10–19 (2015)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lukasz Porwol
    • 1
  • Islam Hassan
    • 1
  • Adegbojega Ojo
    • 1
  • John Breslin
    • 1
  1. 1.Insight Centre for Data AnalyticsNational University of IrelandGalwayIreland

Personalised recommendations