microRNA: Basic Science pp 101-117

Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 887) | Cite as

microRNAs in Pancreatic β-Cell Physiology

Abstract

The β-cells within the pancreas are responsible for production and secretion of insulin. Insulin is released from pancreatic β-cells in response to increasing blood glucose levels and acts on insulin-sensitive tissues such as skeletal muscle and liver in order to maintain normal glucose homeostasis. Therefore, defects in pancreatic β-cell function lead to hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus. A new class of molecules called microRNAs has been recently demonstrated to play a crucial role in regulation of pancreatic β-cell function under normal and pathophysiological conditions. miRNAs have been shown to regulate endocrine pancreas development, insulin biosynthesis, insulin exocytosis, and β-cell expansion. Many of the β-cell enriched miRNAs have multiple functions and regulate pancreas development as well as insulin biosynthesis and exocytosis. Furthermore, several of the β-cell specific miRNAs have been shown to accumulate in the circulation before the onset of diabetes and may serve as potential biomarkers for prediabetes. This chapter will focus on miRNAs that are enriched in pancreatic β-cells and play a critical role in modulation of β-cell physiology and may have clinical significance in the treatment of diabetes.

Keywords

miRNA β-Cell Islets Insulin Diabetes Insulin secretion β-Cell failure Endocrine pancreas Insulin biosynthesis Dicer1 Ago2 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Molecular and Cellular BiochemistryCollege of Medicine, University of KentuckyLexingtonUSA

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