The Aggressive Apes? Causes and Contexts of Great Ape Attacks on Local Persons



Attacks on humans by wildlife are a leading cause of ‘human–wildlife conflict’ and are on the rise due to increasing human populations and competition over space and resources. Thus far, little attention has focused on attacks by wild great apes on humans compared to other large mammals. This chapter reviews the complexities of human–great ape interactions, and examines the context and causes of ape attacks, including assessment of species differences in propensity to direct aggression towards humans. Physical attacks on people by wild great apes in Africa and Asia are overall rare. Most reports involve chimpanzees and, to a lesser extent, gorillas; wild orangutans and bonobos seem to rarely attack humans. Reports suggest that most gorilla attacks target adult humans and are motivated by defensive instincts (e.g. in response to hunting threat). In contrast, victims of wild chimpanzee attacks are overwhelmingly children, and attacks fall more evenly into provoked (i.e. in response to harassment) and unprovoked categories (e.g. predation on young children). Among great apes, the increased propensity of chimpanzees to attack humans is likely due to a combination of greater ecological flexibility that enables them to exploit disturbed habitats near people, their multimale social systems, tendencies for aggressive behaviours in day-to-day life, and more prevalent hunting behaviour. We discuss how improved knowledge of the contexts of ape attacks, along with a better understanding of human cultural attitudes and causes of conflict among different human stakeholder groups, are required to develop effective mitigation strategies to reduce likelihood of attacks.


Human–wildlife interactions Attacks Aggression Great apes Conflict mitigation Conservation conflicts 


  1. Abram NK, Meijaard E, Wells JA et al (2015) Mapping perception of species’ threats and population trends to inform conservation efforts: the Bornean orangutan case study. Divers Distrib 21:487–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agoramoorthy G, Hsu MJ (1999) Rehabilitation and release of chimpanzees on a natural island. J Wildl Rehabil 22:3–7Google Scholar
  3. Ancrenaz M, Ambu L, Sunjoto I et al (2010) Recent surveys in the forests of Ulu Segama Malua, Sabah, Malaysia, show that orang-utans (P. p. morio) can be maintained in slightly logged forests. PLoS One 5, e11510PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ancrenaz M, Oram F, Ambu L (2015) Of Pongo, palms and perceptions: a multidisciplinary assessment of Bornean orang-utans Pongo pygmaeus in an oil palm context. Oryx 49:465–472Google Scholar
  5. Ando C, Iwata Y, Yamagiwa J (2008) Progress of habituation of western lowland gorillas and their reaction to observers in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, Gabon. Afr Study Monogr 39:55–69Google Scholar
  6. Athreya V, Odden M, Linnell JD et al (2011) Translocation as a tool for mitigating conflict with leopards in human‐dominated landscapes of India. Conserv Biol 25:133–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bargali HS, Akhtar N, Chauhan NPS (2005) Characteristics of sloth bear attacks and human casualties in North Bilaspur Forest Division, Chhattisgarh, India. Ursus 16:263–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barua M, Bhagwat SA, Jadhav S (2013) The hidden dimensions of human–wildlife conflict: health impacts, opportunity and transaction costs. Biol Conserv 157:309–316Google Scholar
  9. Borner M (1985) The rehabilitated chimpanzees of Rubondo Island. Oryx 19:151–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Campbell-Smith G, Simanjorang HV, Leader-Williams N et al (2010) Local attitudes and perceptions towards crop-raiding by Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii) and other non-human primates in Northern Sumatra, Indonesia. Am J Primatol 72:866–876PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Campbell-Smith G, Campbell-Smith M, Singleton I et al (2011) Apes in space: saving an imperilled orangutan population in Sumatra. PLoS One 6, e17210PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Catholic World News (2011) Protect humans, not just animals, bishop in Congo urges. Catholic World News. Accessed Jan 2015
  13. Conover MR (2002) Resolving human–wildlife conflicts: the science of wildlife damage management. Lewis, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  14. Davis JT, Mengersen K, Abram NK et al (2013) It’s not just conflict that motivates killing of orangutans. PLoS One 8, e75373PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dellatore DF (2007) Behavioural health of reintroduced orangutans (Pongo abelii) in Bukit Lawang, Sumatra Indonesia. MSc thesis, Oxford Brookes University, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  16. Dhanwatey HS, Crawford JC, Abade LA et al (2013) Large carnivore attacks on humans in central India: a case study from the Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve. Oryx 47:221–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dickman AJ (2010) Complexities of conflict: the importance of considering social factors for effectively resolving human–wildlife conflict. Anim Conserv 13:458–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Doran‐Sheehy DM, Derby AM, Greer D et al (2007) Habituation of western gorillas: the process and factors that influence it. Am J Primatol 69:1354–1369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dunham KM, Ghiurghi A, Cumbi R et al (2010) Human–wildlife conflict in Mozambique: a national perspective, with emphasis on wildlife attacks on humans. Oryx 44:185–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dunnett S, van Orshoven J, Albrecht H (1970) Peaceful co-existence between chimpanzee and man in West Africa. Bijdr Dierkd 40:148–153Google Scholar
  21. Duvall CS (2008) Human settlement ecology and chimpanzee habitat selection in Mali. Landsc Ecol 23:699–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Etiendem DN, Hens L, Pereboom Z (2011) Traditional knowledge systems and the conservation of Cross River gorillas: a case study of Bechati, Fossimondi, Besali, Cameroon. Ecol Soc 16:22Google Scholar
  23. Giles-Vernick T, Rupp S (2006) Visions of apes, reflections on change: telling tales of great apes in Equatorial Africa. Afr Stud Rev 49:51–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Goldsmith ML, Glick J, Ngabirano E (2006) Gorillas living on the edge: literally and figuratively. In: Newton-Fisher NE, Notman H, Paterson JD, Reynolds V (eds) Primates of Western Uganda. Springer, New York, pp 405–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Goodall J (1986) The chimpanzees of Gombe: patterns of behaviour. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  26. Goodrich JM, Miquelle DG (2005) Translocation of problem Amur tigers Panthera tigris altaica to alleviate tiger-human conflicts. Oryx 39:454–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Grieser-Johns B (1996) Responses of chimpanzees to habituation and tourism in the Kibale Forest, Uganda. Biol Conserv 78:257–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gurung B, Smith JLD, McDougal C et al (2008) Factors associated with human-killing tigers in Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Biol Conserv 141:3069–3078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Halloran AR, Cloutier CT, Monde S et al (2014) The Tonkolili Chimpanzee Project in Sierra Leone: implications for chimpanzee conservation strategies in anthropogenic landscapes. Afr Primates 9:15–22Google Scholar
  30. Hardus ME, Lameira AR, Zulfa A et al (2012) Behavioral, ecological, and evolutionary aspects of meat-eating by Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii). Int J Primatol 33:287–304PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Herrero S, Higgins A (2003) Human injuries inflicted by bears in Alberta: 1960–98. Ursus 14:44–54Google Scholar
  32. Hill CM (2004) Farmers’ perspectives of conflict at the wildlife–agriculture boundary: Some lessons learned from African subsistence farmers. Hum Dimens Wildl 9:279–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hill CM (2015) Perspectives of ‘conflict’ at the wildlife–agricultural boundary: 10 years on. Hum Dimens Wildl. 20:296–301Google Scholar
  34. Hill CM, Wallace GE (2012) Crop protection and conflict mitigation: reducing the costs of living alongside non-human primates. Biodivers Conserv 21:2569–2587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hill CM, Webber AD (2010) Perceptions of nonhuman primates in human–wildlife conflict scenarios. Am J Primatol 72:919–924PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hill CM, Osborn FV, Plumptre AJ (2002) Human–wildlife conflict: Identifying the problem and possible solutions. Albertine Rift Technical Report Series, vol 1. Wildlife Conservation Society, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  37. Hockings KJ (2007) Human–chimpanzee coexistence at Bossou, The Republic of Guinea: a chimpanzee perspective. PhD thesis, University of Stirling, StirlingGoogle Scholar
  38. Hockings KJ (2009) Living at the interface: human–chimpanzee competition, coexistence and conflict in Africa. Interact Stud 10:183–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hockings KJ, Humle T (2009) Best practice guidelines for the prevention and mitigation of conflict between humans and great apes. IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, GlandCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hockings KJ, McLennan MR (2012) From forest to farm: systematic review of cultivar feeding by chimpanzees—management implications for wildlife in anthropogenic landscapes. PLoS One 7, e33391Google Scholar
  41. Hockings KJ, Sousa C (2013) Human–chimpanzee sympatry and interactions in Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau: current research and future directions. Primate Conserv 26:57–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hockings KJ, Yamakoshi G, Kabasawa A et al (2010) Attacks on local persons by chimpanzees in Bossou, Republic of Guinea: long-term perspectives. Am J Primatol 72:887–896PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hockings KJ, Humle T, Carvalho S et al (2012) Chimpanzee interactions with nonhuman species in an anthropogenic habitat. Behaviour 149:299–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hockings KJ, McLennan MR, Hill CM (2014) Fear beyond predators. Science 344:981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hockings KJ, McLennan MR, Carvalho S et al (2015) Apes in the Anthropocene: flexibility and survival. Trends Ecol Evol 30:215–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Honda T, Miyagawa Y, Ueda H et al (2009) Effectiveness of newly-designed electric fences in reducing crop damage by medium and large mammals. Mamm Stud 34:13–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Idani GI, Mwanza N, Ihobe H et al (2008) Changes in the status of bonobos, their habitat, and the situation of humans at Wamba in the Luo Scientific Reserve, Democratic Republic of Congo. In: Furuichi T, Thompson J (eds) The Bonobos: behavior, ecology and conservation. Springer, New York, pp 291–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Inogwabini BI, Bewa M (2009) Bonobo food items, food availability and bonobo distribution in the Lake Tumba Swampy forests, Democratic Republic of Congo. Open Conserv Biol J 3:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Inskip C, Fahad Z, Tully R et al (2014) Understanding carnivore killing behaviour: exploring the motivations for tiger killing in the Sundarbans, Bangladesh. Biol Conserv 180:42–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. IUCN (2014) IUCN Red list of threatened species. Version 2014.3. Accessed Dec 2014
  51. Junker J, Blake S, Boesch C et al (2012) Recent decline in suitable environmental conditions for African great apes. Divers Distrib 18:1077–1091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kabasawa A, Garriga RM, Amarasekaran B (2008) Human fatality by escaped Pan troglodytes in Sierra Leone. Int J Primatol 29:1671–1685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kaltenborn BRP, Bjerke T, Nyahongo J (2006) Living with problem animals—self-reported fear of potentially dangerous species in the Serengeti Region, Tanzania. Hum Dimens Wildl 11:397–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kamenya S (2002) Human baby killed by Gombe chimpanzee. Pan Afr News 9:26Google Scholar
  55. Kerbis-Peterhans JC, Gnoske TP (2001) The science of ‘man-eating’ among lions Panthera leo with a reconstruction of the natural history of the ‘man-eaters of Tsavo’. J East Afr Nat Hist 90:1–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Khalil A, Spiotta AM, Barnett GH (2011) Difficulties with the neurological assessment of humans following a chimpanzee attack: case report. J Neurosurg 115:140–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Köhler A (2005) Of Apes and men: Baka and Bantu attitudes to wildlife and the making of eco-goodies and baddies. Conserv Soc 3:407–435Google Scholar
  58. Kormos R, Boesch C, Bakarr MI et al (2003) West African chimpanzees: status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN, Gland, Google Scholar
  59. Kushnir H, Leitner H, Ikanda D, Packer C (2010) Human and ecological risk factors for unprovoked lion attacks on humans in southeastern Tanzania. Hum Dimens Wildl 15:315–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kutsukake N, Matsusaka T (2002) Incident of intense aggression by chimpanzees against an infant from another group in Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. Am J Primatol 58:175–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Laudati AA (2010) The encroaching forest: struggles over land and resources on the boundary of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Soc Nat Resour 23:776–789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Leciak E, Hladik A, Hladik CM (2005) Le palmier à huile (Elaeis guineensis) et les noyaux de biodiversité des forêts-galeries de Guinée maritime: à propos du commensalisme de l’homme et du chimpanzee. Rev Ecol Terre Vie 60:179–184Google Scholar
  63. Lingomo B, Kimura D (2009) Taboo of eating bonobo among the Bongando people in the Wamba Region, Democratic Republic of Congo. Afr Study Monogr 30:209–225Google Scholar
  64. Linnell JDC, Andersen R, Andersone Z et al (2002) The fear of wolves: a review of wolf attacks on people. NINA Oppdragsmelding 731:65Google Scholar
  65. Löe J, Röskaft E (2004) Large carnivores and human safety: a review. Ambio 33:283–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mackenzie CA, Ahabyona P (2012) Elephants in the garden: financial and social costs of crop raiding. Ecol Econ 75:72–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Madden F (2006) Gorillas in the garden: human–wildlife conflict at Bwindi Impenetrable National Park. Policy Matters 14:180–190Google Scholar
  68. Madden F, McQuinn B (2014) Conservation’s blind spot: the case for conflict transformation in wildlife conservation. Biol Conserv 178:97–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Marchal V, Hill CM (2009) Primate crop-raiding: a study of local perceptions in four villages in North Sumatra, Indonesia. Primate Conserv 24:107–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Marchini S (2014) Who’s in conflict with whom? Human dimensions of the conflicts involving wildlife. In: Verdade LM, Lyra-Jorge MC, Piña CI (eds) Applied ecology and human dimensions in biological conservation. Springer, Berlin, pp 189–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. McLennan MR (2008) Beleaguered chimpanzees in the agricultural district of Hoima, western Uganda. Primate Conserv 23:45–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. McLennan MR (2010a) Case study of an unusual human–chimpanzee conflict at Bulindi, Uganda. Pan Afr News 17:1–4Google Scholar
  73. McLennan MR (2010b) Chimpanzee ecology and interactions with people in an unprotected human-dominated landscape at Bulindi, western Uganda. PhD thesis, Oxford Brookes University, UKGoogle Scholar
  74. McLennan MR, Hill CM (2010) Chimpanzee responses to researchers in a disturbed forest–farm mosaic at Bulindi, western Uganda. Am J Primatol 72:907–918PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. McLennan MR, Hill CM (2012) Troublesome neighbours: changing attitudes towards chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in a human-dominated landscape in Uganda. J Nat Conserv 20:219–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. McLennan MR, Hill CM (2013) Ethical issues in the study and conservation of an African great ape in an unprotected, human-dominated landscape in western Uganda. In: MacClancy J, Fuentes A (eds) Ethics in the field: contemporary challenges. Berghahn, New York, pp 42–66Google Scholar
  77. McLennan MR, Hockings KJ (2014) Wild chimpanzees show group differences in selection of agricultural crops. Sci Rep 4:5956PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Meijaard E, Albar G, Rayadin Y et al (2010) Unexpected ecological resilience in Bornean orangutans and implications for pulp and paper plantation management. PLoS One 5, e12813PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Meijaard E, Buchori D, Hadiprakarsa Y et al (2011) Quantifying killing of orangutans and human-orangutan conflict in Kalimantan, Indonesia. PLoS One 6, e27491PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mutombo M, Jezek Z, Arita I et al (1983) Human monkeypox transmitted by a chimpanzee in a tropical rain-forest area of Zaire. Lancet 321:735–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Nantha HS, Tisdell C (2009) The orangutan–oil palm conflict: economic constraints and opportunities for conservation. Biodivers Conserv 18:487–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Nelleman C, Newton A (2002) Great apes—the road ahead: An analysis of great ape habitat, using GLOBIO methodology. United Nations Environment Programme, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  83. Neto MFC, Garrone Neto D, Haddad V Jr (2011) Attacks by Jaguars (Panthera onca) on humans in Central Brazil: report of three cases, with observation of a death. Wilderness Environ Med 22:130–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Newton-Fisher NE (2007) Chimpanzee hunting behaviour. In: Henke W, Rothe H, Tattersall I (eds) Handbook of physical anthropology. Springer, New York, pp 1295–1320Google Scholar
  85. Oishi T (2013) Human–gorilla and gorilla–human: dynamics of human–animal boundaries and interethnic relationships in the central African rainforest. Rev Primatol 5:63Google Scholar
  86. Orams MB (2002) Feeding wildlife as a tourism attraction: a review of issues and impacts. Tour Manage 23:281–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Packer C, Ikanda D, Kissui B, Kushnir H (2005) Lion attacks on humans in Tanzania. Nature 436:927–928PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Quigley H, Herrero S (2005) Characterization and prevention of attacks on humans. In: Woodroffe R, Thirgood S, Rabinowitz A (eds) People and wildlife: conflict or coexistence? Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 27–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rainer H, White A, Lanjouw A (eds) (2014) State of the Apes: extractive industries and Ape conservation. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  90. Rajpurohit KS, Krausman PR (2000) Human–sloth-bear conflicts in Madhya Pradesh, India. Wildl Soc Bull 28:393–399Google Scholar
  91. Redpath SM, Young J, Evely A et al (2013) Understanding and managing conservation conflicts. Trends Ecol Evol 28:100–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Redpath SM, Bhati S, Young J (2014) Tilting at wildlife: reconsidering human–wildlife conflict. Oryx 49:222–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Reynolds V (2005) The chimpanzees of the Budongo Forest. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Reynolds V, Wallis J, Kyamanywa R (2003) Fragments, sugar, and chimpanzees in Masindi District, western Uganda. In: Marsh LK (ed) Primates in fragments. Springer, New York, pp 309–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Richards P (1995) Local understanding of primates and evolution: some Mende beliefs concerning chimpanzees. In: Corbey R, Theunissen B (eds) Ape, man, apeman: changing views since 1600. Leiden University, Leiden, pp 262–273Google Scholar
  96. Sabater Pi J (1966) Gorilla attacks against humans in Rio Muni, West Africa. J Mammal 47:123–124Google Scholar
  97. Salafsky N (1993) Mammalian use of a buffer zone agroforestry system bordering Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Conserv Biol 7:928–933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sept JM, Brooks GE (1994) Reports of chimpanzee natural history, including tool use, in 16th- and 17th-century Sierra Leone. Int J Primatol 15:867–878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sicotte P, Uwengeli P (2002) Reflections on the concept of nature and gorillas in Rwanda: implications for conservation. In: Fuentes A, Wolfe L (eds) Primates face to face. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 163–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sousa J, Vicente L, Gippoliti S et al (2014) Local knowledge and perceptions of chimpanzees in Cantanhez National Park, Guinea‐Bissau. Am J Primatol 76:122–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Struebig MJ, Fischer M, Gaveau DL et al (2015) Anticipated climate and land‐cover changes reveal refuge areas for Borneo’s orang‐utans. Glob Chang Biol 21:2891–2904Google Scholar
  102. Sukumar R (1991) The management of large mammals in relation to male strategies and conflict with people. Biol Conserv 55:93–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Surbeck M, Hohmann G (2008) Primate hunting by bonobos at LuiKotale, Salonga National Park. Curr Biol 18:R906–R907PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Thirgood S, Woodroffe R, Rabinowitz A (2005) The impact of human–wildlife conflict on human lives and livelihoods. In: Woodroffe R, Thirgood S, Rabinowitz A (eds) People and wildlife: conflict or coexistence? Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 13–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Thompson JM, Nestor LM, Kabanda RB (2008) Traditional land-use practices for bonobo conservation. In: Furuichi T, Thompson J (eds) The Bonobos: behavior, ecology and conservation. Springer, New York, pp 227–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Tumusiime DM, Svarstad H (2011) A local counter-narrative on the conservation of mountain gorillas. Forum Dev Stud 38:239–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Tutin CEG, Oslisly R (1995) Homo, Pan and Gorilla: co-existence over 60 000 years at Lopé in central Gabon. J Hum Evol 28:597–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Wang SW, Macdonald DW (2006) Livestock predation by carnivores in Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park, Bhutan. Biol Conserv 129:558–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Watts DP, Mitani JC (2002) Hunting behavior of chimpanzees at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. Int J Primatol 23:1–28Google Scholar
  110. White L, Edwards A (eds) (2000) Conservation research in the African rain forests: a technical handbook. Wildlife Conservation Society, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  111. Wich SA, Gaveau D, Abram N et al (2012) Understanding the impacts of land-use policies on a threatened species: is there a future for the Bornean orang-utan? PLoS One 7, e49142PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wilson ML, Boesch C, Fruth B et al (2014) Lethal aggression in Pan is better explained by adaptive strategies than human impacts. Nature 513:414–417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Woodroffe R, Thirgood S, Rabinowitz A (eds) (2005) People and wildlife: conflict or co-existence? Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  114. Wrangham R (2001) Moral decisions about wild chimpanzees. In: Beck BB, Stoinski TS, Hutchins M et al (eds) Great apes and humans: the ethics of coexistence. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, pp 230–244Google Scholar
  115. Wrangham RW, Peterson D (1996) Demonic males: apes and the origins of human violence. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, BostonGoogle Scholar
  116. Wrangham RW, Wilson ML, Hare BA et al (2000) Chimpanzee predation and the ecology of microbial exchange. Microb Ecol Health Dis 12:186–188Google Scholar
  117. Yamakoshi G (2005) What is happening on the border between humans and chimpanzees? Wildlife conservation in West African rural landscapes. In: Hiramatsu K (ed) Coexistence with nature in a ‘glocalizing’ world: field science perspectives. Kyoto University, Kyoto, pp 91–97Google Scholar
  118. Yeager CP (1997) Orangutan rehabilitation in Tanjung Puting National Park, Indonesia. Conserv Biol 11:802–805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Young JC, Marzano M, White RM et al (2010) The emergence of biodiversity conflicts from biodiversity impacts: characteristics and management strategies. Biodivers Conserv 19:3973–3990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Yuwono EH, Susanto P, Saleh C et al (2007) Guidelines for the better management practices on avoidance, mitigation and management of human–orangutan conflict in and around oil palm plantations. WWF–Indonesia, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthew R. McLennan
    • 1
  • Kimberley J. Hockings
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Anthropology Centre for Conservation, Environment and DevelopmentOxford Brookes UniversityOxfordUK
  2. 2.Departmento de AntropologiaUniversidade Nova de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  3. 3.Centre for Research in Anthropology (CRIA)LisbonPortugal

Personalised recommendations