Advertisement

Spanish Colonial History and Archaeology in the Mariana Islands: Echoes from the Western Pacific

  • James M. BaymanEmail author
  • John A. Peterson
Chapter
Part of the Contributions To Global Historical Archaeology book series (CGHA)

Abstract

Comprehending the ramifications of the Spanish galleon (1565–1815) in the Pacific is vital for constructing more nuanced and balanced narratives of world history. Scholarship on colonialism in the American continents has long emphasized the outcomes of European contact on the economies, technologies, health, and cultural identities of its native populations. However, such research is rarely informed through comparison with Pacific Island societies that also engaged with—and were eventually colonized by—the Spanish. Provisioning the galleon ships that crossed the Pacific and sustained their religious mission fueled the economy of the Mariana Islands. This chapter integrates archaeological and documentary insights on the impact of Spanish colonialism in the Mariana Islands, an archipelago between Manila, Philippines and Acapulco, Mexico. This archipelago was a stepping stone for the Spanish galleon and its indigenous population, the Chamorro people, offering a unique and understudied example of early modern colonialism. We examine the material consequences of Spanish colonialism on Chamorro diet and food production, trade and political economy, labor and gender relations, and contemporary heritage and identity. Finally, we consider directions for future research on Spanish colonial-period archaeology in the Mariana Islands.

Keywords

Colonialism Mariana Islands Pacific Technology Indigenous 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Our participation in the June (6–7) 2013 workshop at the Universitat Pompeu Fabra, in Barcelona, Spain, was a catalyst for this chapter. The workshop was co-organized by Sandra Montón-Subias, María Cruz Berrocal, and Apen Ruíz Martínez, and it was entitled ‘Archaeologies of Early Modern Spanish Colonialism.’ We offer our warmest thanks to the workshop organizers and coeditors of this volume. This chapter has benefitted from the ongoing interactions that we have had with our friends and colleagues in the Mariana Islands and elsewhere including (but not limited to) the following individuals: Andrea Jalandoni, Judith Amesbury, David Atienza, Omaira Brunal-Perry, Lon Bulgrin, Mike Carson, Alex Coello, Boyd Dixon, Majorie Driver, Doug Farrer, Hiro Kurashina, Rosanna Barcinas, Rosalind Hunter-Anderson, Carlos Madrid, Darlene Moore, Scott Russell, and Rebecca Stephenson. They have all improved and broadened our perspectives, but we are singularly responsible for any flaws in our reasoning and/or our use and interpretation of documentary and archaeological sources of information.

References

  1. Amesbury, J. R., & Hunter-Anderson, R. L. (2008). An analysis of archaeological and historical data on fisheries for pelagic species in Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Mangilao: Micronesian Archaeological Research Services.Google Scholar
  2. Arnold, D. E. (1985). Ceramic theory and culture process. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Athens, J. S. (2011). Latte period occupation on Pagan and Sarigan, Northern Mariana Islands. Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology, 6, 314–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Atienza, D., & Coello, A. (2012). Death rituals and identity in contemporary Guam (Mariana Islands). The Journal of Pacific History, 47(4), 459–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bayman, J. M., Kurashina, H., Carson, M. T., Peterson, J. A., Doig, D. J., & Drengson, J. (2012a). Household economy and gendered labor in the 17th century AD in the Mariana Islands, western Pacific. Journal of Field Archaeology, 37, 259–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bayman, J. M., Kurashina, H., Carson, M. T., Peterson, J. A., Doig, D. J., & Drengson, J. (2012b). Latte household economic organization at Ritidian, Guam National Wildlife Refuge, Mariana Islands. Micronesica: A Journal of the University of Guam, 42(1/2), 258–273.Google Scholar
  7. Bjork, K. (1998). The link that kept the Philippines Spanish: Mexican merchant interests and the Manila trade, 1571–1815. Journal of World History, 9(1), 25–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Briggs, G. (1920). Guam corn. Journal of the American Society for Agronomy, 12(5), 149–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brunal-Perry, O. (2009). Early European exploration and the Spanish period in the Marianas 1521–1898. In T. Carrel (Ed.), Maritime history and archaeology of the commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (pp. 95–142). Saipan: CNMI Division of Historic Preservation.Google Scholar
  10. Buschmann, R. F., Slack, E. R., & Tueller, J. B. (2014). Navigating the Spanish Lake: The Pacific in the Iberian world, 1521–1898. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.Google Scholar
  11. Butler, B. (1992). An archaeological survey of Aguiguan (Aguijan) Northern Mariana Islands. Micronesian archaeological survey report no. 29. Saipan: Division of Historic Preservation, Department of Community and Cultural Affairs.Google Scholar
  12. Butler, B. (1995). Archaeological investigations in the Achuguo and Matansa areas of Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands. Micronesian archaeological survey report no. 30. Saipan: Division of Historic Preservation, Department of Community and Cultural Affairs.Google Scholar
  13. Carson, M. T. (2012). Archaeological studies of the Latte period. Micronesica: A Journal of the University of Guam (Special issue), 42(1/2), 1–381.Google Scholar
  14. Coello, A. (2011). Colonialism and holiness in the Mariana Islands: The blood of martyrs (1668–1676). Hispania Sacra, LXIII, 707–745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Coello, A. (2013). Corruption, greed, and the public good in the Mariana Islands, 1700–1720. Philippine Studies: Historical and Ethnographic Viewpoints, 61(2), 193–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cordy, R. (1983). Social stratification in the Mariana Islands. Oceania, 53, 272–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Craib, J. (1986). Casa de los antiguos: Social differentiation in protohistoric Chamorro society. Unpublished PhD. dissertation. Sydney: University of Sydney.Google Scholar
  18. de Freycinet, L. C. D. (1839). Voyage autour du monde executé sur les corvettes de S. M. I’Uranie et al Physicienne Pendant les années 1817–1820. Vol. 1, Historie du Voyage. Bk. 3, Iles Mariannes. Paris: Pillet Aine.Google Scholar
  19. de Freycinet, L. C. (2003) [1839]. An account of the Corvette L’Uranie’s Sojourn at the Mariana Islands, 1819. Supplemented with the Journal of Rose de Freycinet. (Translated and prefaced by Glynn Barratt). Saipan, CNMI: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Division of Historic Preservation and the MARC-University of Guam.Google Scholar
  20. De Vos, P. (2006). The science of spices: Empiricism and economic botany in the early Spanish empire. Journal of World History, 17(4), 399–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Delgadillo, Y., McGrath, Th. B., & Plaza, P. (1979). Spanish forts of Guam. MARC publication series no. 7. Mangilao: University of Guam.Google Scholar
  22. Dixon, B., Mangieri, T., McDowell, E., Paraso, K., & Rieth, T. (2006). Prehistoric Chamorro household activities and refuse disposal patterns on the Micronesian Island of Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Micronesica: A Journal of the University of Guam, 39, 55–71.Google Scholar
  23. Dixon, B., Schaefer, R., & McCurdy, T. (2010). Traditional Chamorro farming innovations during the Spanish and Philippine contact period on northern Guam. Philippine Quarterly of Culture & Society, 38(4), 291–321.Google Scholar
  24. Dixon, B., Gilda, L., & Mangieri, T. (2013). Archaeological identification of stone fish weirs mentioned to Freycinet in 1819 on the island of Guam. Journal of Pacific History, 48(4), 349–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Driver, M. G. (1989). The account of fray Juan Pobre’s residence in the Marianas, 1602. MARC miscellaneous series no. 8. Mangilao: MARC, University of Guam.Google Scholar
  26. Driver, M. G. (2005). The Spanish governors of the Mariana Islands and the Saga of the Palacio. MARC educational series, no. 27. Mangilao: University of Guam.Google Scholar
  27. Driver, M. G., & Brunal-Perry, O. (1996). Carolinians in the Mariana Islands in the 1800s. MARC educational series no. 20. Mangilao: University of Guam.Google Scholar
  28. Egami, T., & Saito, F. (1973). Archaeological excavation on Pagan in the Mariana Islands. The Journal of the Anthropological Society of Nippon, 81(3), 203–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Flynn, D. O., & Giráldez, A. (1995). Born with a ‘silver spoon’: The origin of world trade in 1571. Journal of World History, 6(2), 201–221.Google Scholar
  30. Fritz, G. (1989). The Chamorro: A history and ethnography of the Mariana Islands (Edited by S. Russell; translated by E. Craddock). Saipan: Division of Historic Preservation.Google Scholar
  31. Graves, M. W. (1986). Organization and differentiation within late prehistoric ranked social units, Mariana Islands, western Pacific. Journal of Field Archaeology, 13, 139–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Green, R. C. (2005). Sweet potato transfers in Polynesian prehistory. In C. Ballard, P. Brown, R. M. Bourke, & T. Harwood (Eds.), The sweet potato in Oceania: A reappraisal (pp. 43–62). Sydney: Centatime.Google Scholar
  33. Guam Preservation Trust Master Plan. (2007–2012). Hagåtña, Guam.Google Scholar
  34. Guzmán-Rivas, P. (1960). Reciprocal geographic influences of the trans-Pacific galleon trade. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Austin: University of Texas.Google Scholar
  35. Handy, E. S., & Pukui, M. K. (1958). The Polynesian family system in Kaʻu, Hawaiʻi. Wellington: The Polynesian Society.Google Scholar
  36. Hather, J., & Kirch, P. V. (1991). Prehistoric sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) from Mangaia Island, central Polynesia. Antiquity, 65, 887–893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Haynes, D. E., & Wuerch, W. L. (1993). Historical survey of the Spanish mission sites on Guam 1669–1800. MARC Educational Series No. 9. Mangilao: University of Guam.Google Scholar
  38. Hezel, F. X. (1982). From conversion to conquest: The early Spanish mission in the Marianas. The Journal of Pacific History, XVII(3), 115–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hezel, F. X. (2013). The early Spanish period in the Marianas, 1668–1698. Proceedings of the 2nd Marianas History Conference: One archipelago, many stories: integrating our narratives (pp. 127–136). Mangilao: Online publication of the Guampedia Foundation. http://issuu.com/guampedia/docs/mhc_history_bookpft?e=1294219/5887650. Accessed 13 Mar 2015.
  40. Hunter-Anderson, R. L. (2007). Lithics. In D. R. Moore (Ed.), Latte period and Spanish period archaeology at old Pago, Guam (pp. 47–67). Report on file. Mangilao: Micronesian Archaeological Research Services.Google Scholar
  41. Jalandoni, A. (2011). The Casa Real site in Ritidian, northern Guam: An historical context. Philippine Quarterly of Culture & Society, 39(1), 27–53.Google Scholar
  42. Junco, R. (2011). The archaeology of Manila galleons. In M. Staniforth, J. Craig, S. C. Jago-on, B. Orillaneda, & L. Lacsina (Eds.), Proceedings on the Asia-Pacific Regional Conference on Underwater Cultural Heritage (pp. 877–866). Manila.Google Scholar
  43. Lévesque, R. (1994). History of Micronesia: A collection of source documents, Belgian Jesuits in the Mariana Islands. The letters of Father Gerard Bouwens and Father Peter Coomans, 1662–1697. Quebec: Lévesque Publications.Google Scholar
  44. Lévesque, R. (1996a). History of Micronesia: A collection of source documents, Vol. 7, more turmoil in the Marianas, 1679–1683. Quebec: Lévesque Publications.Google Scholar
  45. Lévesque, R. (1996b). History of Micronesia: A collection of source documents, Vol. 8, Last Chamorro Revolt, 1683–1687. Quebec: Lévesque Publications.Google Scholar
  46. Lévesque, R. (1998a). History of Micronesia: A collection of source documents, Vol. 12, Carolinians Drift to Guam, 1715–1728. Quebec: Lévesque Publications.Google Scholar
  47. Lévesque, R. (1998b). French ships at Guam, 1708–1717. The Journal of Pacific History, 33(1), 105–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lévesque, R. (1999). History of Micronesia: A collection of source documents, Vol. 14, full census of the Marianas, 1746–1773. Quebec: Lévesque Publications.Google Scholar
  49. Lightfoot, K. (2005). The archaeology of colonization: California in cross-cultural perspective. In G. Stein (Ed.), The archaeology of colonial encounters: Comparative perspectives (pp. 207–235). Santa Fe: School of American Research Press.Google Scholar
  50. Madrid, C. (2006). Beyond distances: Governance, politics and deportation in the Mariana Islands from 1870 to 1877. Saipan: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Northern Marianas Council for the Humanities.Google Scholar
  51. Malo, D. (1951). Hawaiian antiquities. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum special publication 2. Honolulu: Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum.Google Scholar
  52. Mathers, W. M., & Shaw, N. (1993). Treasure of the Concepción: The archaeological recovery of a Spanish galleon. Hong Kong: APA Publications (HK) Ltd.Google Scholar
  53. Mathers, W. M., Parker III, H. S., & Copus, K. A. (Eds.) (1990). Archaeological report: The recovery of the Manila galleon Nuestra Señora de la Concepcion. On file at the Micronesian Area Research Center. Mangilao: University of Guam.Google Scholar
  54. McKinnon, J. F., & Raupp, J. T. (2011). The potential for research on Spanish cultural heritage in the Commonwealth of the North Mariana Islands. Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Regional Conference on underwater cultural heritage. In M. Staniforth, J. Craig, S. C. Jago-on, B. Orillaneda, & L. Lacsina (Eds.). Manila, Philippines. The MUA Collection. http://www.themua.org/collections/items/show/1198. Accessed 7 April 2015.
  55. Moore, D. R. (2012). What’s new and what’s cooking in the Latte period pots. Micronesica: A Journal of the University of Guam, 42, 121–147.Google Scholar
  56. Moore, D. R. (2013). Where is the gold? Silver and copper coins from two of Guam’s historic sites. Proceedings of the 2nd Marianas History Conference: One archipelago, many stories: integrating our narratives (pp. 159–196). Mangilao: Online publication of the Guampedia Foundation.Google Scholar
  57. Moore, D. R., & Steffy, R. S. (2008). Hotnun sanhiyong: Guam’s outside ovens. Report prepared for Guam Historic Preservation Office. Barrigada: Micronesian Archaeological Research Services.Google Scholar
  58. Nogami, T. (2006). On Hizen porcelain and the Manila—Acapulco galleon trade. Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association Bulletin, 26, 124–130.Google Scholar
  59. Osborne, D. (1947). Chamorro archaeology. Manuscript on file at Micronesian Area Research Center. Mangilao: University of Guam.Google Scholar
  60. Partners, I. O. T. A. (1996). 1996 annual report: The recovery of the Manila galleon Santa Margarita. Bellevue: IOTA Partners.Google Scholar
  61. Patacsil, P. E. (1998). Coinage in Guam during the Spanish era. Chapel Hill: Professional Press.Google Scholar
  62. Peterson, J. A. (2010). Paleoenvironmental studies. In M. Carson & J. Peterson (Eds.), Archaeological Research at the Laguna Pago Bay Resort, Guam. Manuscript report on file at the Micronesian Area Research Center. Mangilao: University of Guam.Google Scholar
  63. Pietrusewsky, M., Douglas, M. T., & Ikehara-Quebral, R. M. (1997). An assessment of health and disease in the prehistoric inhabitants of the Mariana Islands. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 104(3), 315–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pigafetta, A. (1969). Magellan’s voyage: A narrative account of the first circumnavigation. Translated and edited by R. A. Skelton (Vol. 2). New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Pollock, N. J. (1986). Food habits in Guam over 500 years. Pacific Viewpoint, 27(2), 120–143.Google Scholar
  66. Prasad, U. K., & Kurland, L. T. (1997). Arrival of new diseases on Guam: Lines of evidence suggesting the post-Spanish origins of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson’s dementia. The Journal of Pacific History, 32(2), 217–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Quimby, F. (2011). The hierro commerce: Culture contact, appropriation, and colonial entanglement. The Journal of Pacific History, 46(1), 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Reed, E. (1952). General report on archaeology and history of Guam. Santa Fe: USDI National Park Service.Google Scholar
  69. Reed, E. (1954). Archaeology in Guam, 1952: A status report. American Anthropologist, 56, 877–879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Reinman, F. (1966). Notes on archaeological survey of Guam, Mariana Islands, 1965–1966. Preliminary report for National Science Foundation Grant #GS-662. On file at the Micronesian Area Research Center. Mangilao: University of Guam.Google Scholar
  71. Reinman, F. (n.d.) Preliminary report of the Pagat site. On file at the Micronesian Area Research Center. Mangilao: University of Guam.Google Scholar
  72. Rogers, R. F. (1995). Destiny’s landfall: A history of Guam. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.Google Scholar
  73. Rothchild, N. (2003). Colonial encounters in a native American landscape: The Spanish and Dutch in North America. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.Google Scholar
  74. Russell, S. (1998). Tiempon I Manamof‘ono: Ancient Chamorro culture and history of the Northern Mariana Islands. Micronesian archaeological survey report 32. Saipan: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Division of Historic Preservation.Google Scholar
  75. Saunders, R. (1993). Architecture of the missions Santa Maria and Santa Catalina de Amelia. In B. McEwan (Ed.), The Spanish missions of La Florida (pp. 35–61). Gainesville: University Press of Florida.Google Scholar
  76. Schuetz, M. K. (2007). The archaeology of the Governor’s palace. Plaza de España, Agaña, Guam. MARC Monograph Series, No. 4. Mangilao: University of Guam.Google Scholar
  77. Shurtz, W. L. (1959). The Manila galleon. New York: E. P. Dutton.Google Scholar
  78. Skowronek, R. F. (2009). On the fringes of New Spain: The northern borderlands and the Pacific. In T. Majewski & D. Gaimster (Eds.), International handbook of historic archaeology (pp. 471–505). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  79. Souder, L. M. T. (1992). Daughters of the island: Contemporary Chamorro women organizers on Guam. MARC Monograph Series No. 1. Lanham: University Press of American.Google Scholar
  80. Spate, O. H. K. (1979). The Spanish Lake. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  81. Spoehr, A. (1957). Marianas prehistory: Archaeological survey and excavations on Saipan, Tinian, and Rota. Fieldiana: Anthropology 48. Chicago: Chicago Natural History Museum.Google Scholar
  82. Storey, A. A., Clarke, A. C., & Matisso-Smith, E. A. (2011). Identifying contact with the Americas: A commensal-based approach. In T. Jones, A. Storey, E. Matisso-Smith, & J. Ramirez-Aliaga (Eds.), Polynesians in America: Pre-Columbian contacts with the new world (pp. 111–138). Lanham: Altamira Press.Google Scholar
  83. Thompson, L. (1945). The native culture of the Mariana Islands. Bulletin 185. Honolulu: Bernice P. Bishop Museum.Google Scholar
  84. Thompson, L. (1947). Guam and its people. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  85. Topping, D. M., Ogo, P. M., & Dungca, B. C. (1975). Chamorro-English dictionary. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.Google Scholar
  86. Underwood, J. (1976). The native origins of the neo-Chamorros of the Mariana Island. Micronesica, 12(2), 203–209.Google Scholar
  87. Underwood, R. A. (2012). Leapfrogging our way through history: Hayi i manaina-mu. Keynote address delivered at the Marianas History Conference. 16 June, 2012, Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.Google Scholar
  88. Van Buren, M. (2010). The archaeological study of Spanish colonialism in the Americas. Journal of Archaeological Research, 18, 151–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Van der Porten, E. (2005). The Manila galleon trade 1565–1815: Traces & treasures. Noticias del Puerto de Monterey, 54(1), 15–23.Google Scholar
  90. Vernon, N. I. (2013). El Camino Real: Guam’s Spanish period infrastructure: Phase I: Background research and historical documentation. GANDA Report No. 2222–1. On file. Agana: Guam Historic Resources Division.Google Scholar
  91. Voss, B. L. (2008). Gender, race, and labor in the archaeology of the Spanish colonial Americas. Current Anthropology, 49(5), 861–893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Welch, D. R., & McNeill, J. (2006). In back of the cathedral: Archaeological investigations in the heart of Hagatna, Guam: Archaeological inventory survey, data recovery, burial recovery, and monitoring at the Academy of Our Lady of Guam Gymnasium site. Vol. 1: Narrative and vol. II: Appendices. Report on file. Honolulu: International Archaeological Research Institute, Inc.Google Scholar
  93. Yee, S. L., & Allen, J. (2011). Archaeological investigations for GPA power pole for Lujan house, Padre Palomo Street, Hagåtña, Guam. Report on file. Honolulu: International Archaeological Research Institute, Inc.Google Scholar
  94. Yen, D. (1974). The sweet potato and Oceania: An essay in ethnobotany. Bernice P. Bishop museum bulletin 236. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Hawai‘i-MānoaHonoluluUSA
  2. 2.University of GuamMangilaoUSA

Personalised recommendations