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Vascular Niche in HSC Development, Maintenance and Regulation

  • Süleyman CoşkunEmail author
  • Karen K. Hirschi
Chapter
Part of the Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine book series (STEMCELL)

Abstract

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are multi-potent cells that have ability to self-renew and differentiate to all blood cell lineages. To function properly, HSC are regulated within unique microenvironments, or so called HSC niches , which are composed of specialized supporting cells and extracellular matrix. During mammalian embryogenesis, sites of hematopoiesis change over the course of gestation, as does the HSC niche composition: from extraembryonic yolk sac and placenta, to embryonic aorta-gonad-mesonephros region, fetal liver, and finally fetal bone marrow where HSC predominantly reside postnatally. From their first emergence to their final destination in bone marrow, HSC reside in close proximity to, and interact with vascular cells. There are three main vascular niche types; sinusoidal, arteriolar and perivascular. The interactions between HSC and vascular niche cells have been of great research interest; however, our understanding of the cellular phenotypes within vascular niches, and the molecular basis of vascular niche-HSC interactions, is still rudimentary. In this chapter, we will discuss the developmental relationships between HSC and vascular endothelial cells during HSC ontogeny, and the role of postnatal vascular niches in the regulation of HSC maintenance and function.

Keywords

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) HSC niche Hematopoiesis Vascular endothelial cells Sinusoidal niche Arteriolar niche Perivascular niche Bone marrow 

Notes

Acknowledgments

KKH has been supported by NIH grants HL077675, HL096360, HL128064, EB005173, EB017103 and EB016629.

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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Yale Cardiovascular Research Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Vascular Biology and Therapeutics Program, and Yale Stem Cell CenterYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.Department of Neurosurgery, Yale Program in Brain Tumor ResearchYale School of Medicine, The Anlyan CenterNew HavenUSA

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