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Liver Stem Cell Niche

  • Tohru ItohEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine book series (STEMCELL)

Abstract

The liver is renowned for its unique and strong regenerative capacities manifested in response to various types of injury. While mature hepatocytes, the parenchymal cells of the organ, possess a remarkable capacity to proliferate upon injury and can readily compensate the lost tissue, putative stem/progenitor-like cells are known to emerge in severely and/or chronically injured liver where the proliferative capacity of hepatocytes is compromised. These cells, referred to here as liver progenitor cells (LPCs), can be generally characterized by histopathological examinations of various liver diseases in both human patients and animal models as biliary epithelial cell marker-positive cells that emerge ectopically in the parenchymal region in the liver. LPCs play a substantial role in promoting liver regeneration, even though their contribution as the genuine stem cell population differentiating to hepatocytes still remains elusive. Recent evidence indicates that the emergence and expansion of LPCs actually reflects dynamic remodeling of the intrahepatic biliary system, thereby representing its extraordinary tissue plasticity. In accord with the notion that liver injury usually invokes inflammatory and fibrogenic responses, various types of immune cells and mesenchymal cells that are activated constitute the niche for LPCs and can influence their dynamics by providing signaling molecules and extracellular matrix components. Elucidating the cellular and molecular basis for the LPC induction and the biliary remodeling should pave the way for fully understanding the mechanisms of liver regeneration and hold promise for future development of therapeutic strategies for liver disease.

Keywords

Liver Regeneration Liver progenitor cells Oval cells Ductular reaction 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Institute of Molecular and Cellular BiosciencesThe University of TokyoBunkyo-ku, TokyoJapan

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