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Inner Ear Stem Cell Niche

  • Zhengqing HuEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine book series (STEMCELL)

Abstract

In the vertebrate inner ear, sensory hair cells are the primary receptors for sound and movement. However, adult mammals have a severely limited ability to regenerate inner ear sensory hair cells and neurons after they are damaged. Therefore, loss of mammalian hair cells and neurons is usually irreversible, which cause permanent hearing loss, balance impairment, and other inner ear disorders. Progress in stem cell biology has shed light on the regeneration of sensory hair cell and inner ear neurons. In recent years, hair cells and neurons have been generated using pluripotent stem cells, multipotent tissue-specific stem cells derived from inner ear and other tissues. However, stem cell niche in the inner ear has been rarely reported. In this chapter, I will discuss inner ear stem cell niche for hair cells and inner ear neurons.

Keywords

Embryonic stem cell Hair cell Inner ear Regeneration Spiral ganglion Stem cell niche 

Abbreviations

ABR

Auditory brainstem response

Atoh1

Atonal Homolog 1

BDNF

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

Bmp

Bone morphogenetic protein

BrdU

Bromodeoxyuridine

Dll1

Delta-like 1

Dlx3

Distal-Less Homeobox 3

Dlx5

Distal-Less Homeobox 5

EGF

Epidermal growth factor 

EMT

Epithelial to mesenchymal transition

ES cell

Embryonic stem cell

Eya1

Eyes Absent Homolog 1 

FACS

Fluorescence activated cell sorting 

FGFs

Fibroblast Growth Factors

Foxi1

Forkhead Box I1

Gata3

GATA binding protein 3

Gbx2

Gastrulation Brain Homeobox 2

GFAP

Glial fibrillary acidic protein

GFP

Green fluorescent protein

Hes1

Hes family bHLH transcription factor 1

Hes5

Hes family bHLH transcription factor 5

IGF

Insulin-like growth factor

iPSC

Induced pluripotent stem cells

Islet1

Insulin gene enhancer protein 1

Jag1

Jagged 1

Jag2

Jagged 2

Klf4

Kruppel-like factor 4

Lfng

LFNG O-fucosylpeptide 3-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase

Lgr5

Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 

LIF

Leukemia inhibitory factor

MUCs

Mouse utricle sensory epithelium-derived prosensory-like cells

NGF

Nerve growth factor 

NT-3

Neurotrophin-3

Oct4,

Octamer-binding transcription factor 4

Pax

Paired box protein

P-zero

Myelin protein zero

RT-PCR

Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction

SGN

Spiral ganglion neurons

Six1

Sine Oculis Homeobox 1

Smad3

Sma, mothers against decapentaplegic 3

Snai1

Snail Family Zinc Finger 1

Snai2

Snail Family Zinc Finger 2

Sox1

SRY-related HMG-box 1

Sox2

SRY-related HMG-box 2

Sox3

SRY-related HMG-box 3

Sox9

SRY-related HMG-box 9

TGF-α

Transforming growth factor alpha

TGF-β

The transforming growth factor beta 

TUJ1

Beta III Tubulin

Zeb1

Zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1

Zeb2

Zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2

ZO-1

Zona occuldens protein 1

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by R01 (R01DC013275) from NIH. The author thank Ms. Yang Zhou, Xiaoyang Li, and Yiyun Jiang for their valuable comments to the manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck SurgeryWayne State University School of MedicineDetroitUSA

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