Model Checking Parameterized Asynchronous Shared-Memory Systems
We characterize the complexity of liveness verification for parameterized systems consisting of a leader process and arbitrarily many anonymous and identical contributor processes. Processes communicate through a shared, bounded-value register. While each operation on the register is atomic, there is no synchronization primitive to execute a sequence of operations atomically.
We analyze the case in which processes are modeled by finite-state machines or pushdown machines and the property is given by a Büchi automaton over the alphabet of read and write actions of the leader. We show that the problem is decidable, and has a surprisingly low complexity: it is NP-complete when all processes are finite-state machines, and is PSPACE-hard and in NEXPTIME when they are pushdown machines. This complexity is lower than for the non-parameterized case: liveness verification of finitely many finite-state machines is PSPACE-complete, and undecidable for two pushdown machines.
For finite-state machines, our proofs characterize infinite behaviors using existential abstraction and semilinear constraints. For pushdown machines, we show how contributor computations of high stack height can be simulated by computations of many contributors, each with low stack height. Together, our results characterize the complexity of verification for parameterized systems under the assumptions of anonymity and asynchrony.
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