DIC Measurements of the Human Heart During Cardiopulmonary Bypass Surgery

  • Mikko HokkaEmail author
  • Nikolas Mirow
  • Horst Nagel
  • Sebastian Vogt
  • Veli-Tapani Kuokkala
Conference paper
Part of the Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series book series (CPSEMS)


Image-based measurements of the deformation of the human heart can be very useful to the surgeon, when assessing the condition and functioning of the patient’s heart. Digital image correlation can provide fast and accurate information about the deformation and motion of the surface of the heart. The deformation measurements can be visualized with colors allowing easy interpretation of the results, which makes this technique even more suitable for use in the operating room. Digital image correlation, however, requires either a natural or an artificial surface pattern with high contrast. The surface of the heart is wet, smooth, and has only a minimal contrast pattern, which cannot easily be improved with artificial markers. This preliminary feasibility study, however, shows that despite the practical and theoretical problems, DIC can provide useful data on the deformation of the human heart during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. The results show that the natural patterns of the right atrium and ventricle are sufficient for DIC analysis, but significantly better results could be obtained with higher contrast artificial patterns.


Digital Image Correlation In-vivo measurements Human heart Natural pattern 


  1. 1.
    La Gerche, A., Ruxandra, J., Voigt, J.: Right ventricular function by strain echocardiography. Curr. Opin. Cardiol. 25, 430–436 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Teske, A., Cox, M., De Boeck, B.: Echocardiographic tissue deformation imaging quantifies abnormal regional right ventricular function in arrythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy. J. Am. Soc. Echocardiogr. 22, 920–927 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pauliks, L., Valdes-Cruz, L., Perryman, R., Scholl, F.: Right ventricular wall-motion changes after infant open heart surgery—a tissue Doppler study. Echocardiography 31, 209–217 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ibrahim, E.: Myocardial tagging by cardiovascular magnetic resonance: evolution of techniques—pulse sequences, analysis algorithms, and applications. J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 13, 36 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dorri, F., Niederer, P.F., Lunkenheimer, P.P.: A finite element model of the human left ventricular systole. Comput. Methods Biomech. Biomed. Engin. 9, 319–341 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Moerman, K., Holt, C., Evans, S., Simms, C.: Digital image correlation and finite element modelling as a method to determine mechanical properties of human soft tissue in vivo. J. Biomech. 42, 1150–1153 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Han, Y., Kim, D.-W., Kwon, H.: Application of digital image cross-correlation and smoothing function to the diagnosis of breast cancer. J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 14, 7–18 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Libertiaux, V., Pascon, F., Cescotto, S.: Experimental verification of brain tissue incompressibility using digital image correlation. J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 4, 1177–1185 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gao, Z., Desai, J.: Estimating zero-strain states of very soft tissue under gravity loading using digital image correlation. Med. Image Anal. 14, 126–137 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Miri, A., Barthelat, F., Mongeau, L.: Effects of dehydration on the viscoelastic properties of vocal folds in large deformations. J. Voice 26, 688–697 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Myers, K., Coudrillier, B., Boyce, B., Nguyen, T.: The inflation response of the posterior bovine sclera. Acta Biomater. 6, 4327–4335 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Thompson, M., Schell, H., Lienau, J., Duda, G.: Digital Image correlation: a technique for determining local mechanical conditions within early bone callus. Med. Eng. Phys. 29, 820–823 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lionello, G., Sirieix, C., Baleani, M.: An effective procedure to create speckle pattern on biological soft tissue for digital image correlation measurements. J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 39, 1–8 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc. 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mikko Hokka
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nikolas Mirow
    • 2
  • Horst Nagel
    • 3
  • Sebastian Vogt
    • 2
  • Veli-Tapani Kuokkala
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Materials ScienceTampere University of TechnologyTampereFinland
  2. 2.Heart SurgeryUniversitätsklinikum Gießen und Marburg GmbHMarburgGermany
  3. 3.LaVision LTDGöttingenGermany

Personalised recommendations