Tattoo Antenna Temporary Transfers Operating On-Skin (TATTOOS)

  • James Tribe
  • Dumtoochukwu Oyeka
  • John Batchelor
  • Navjot Kaur
  • Diana Segura-Velandia
  • Andrew West
  • Robert Kay
  • Katia Vega
  • Will Whittow
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9187)


This paper discusses the development of RFID logo antennas based on the logos of Loughborough University and the University of Kent which can be tattooed directly onto the skin’s surface. Hence, this paper uses aesthetic principles to create functional wearable technology. Simulations of possible designs for the tattoo tags have been carried out to optimize their performance. Prototypes of the tag designs were fabricated and read range measurements with the transfer tattoos on a volunteers arm were carried out to test the performance. Measured read ranges of approximately 0.5 m have been achieved with the tag only10 µm from the body.


Aesthetic design Body centric communication Conducting ink RFID 


  1. 1.
    Ziai, M., Batchelor, J.: Temporary on-skin passive UHF RFID transfer tag. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 59, 3565–3571 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cranny-Francis, A., Hawkins, C.: Wearable technology. Vis. Commun. 7, 267–270 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chauraya, A., Zhang, S., Whittow, W., Acti, T., Seager, R., Dias, T., Vardaxoglou, Y.C.: Addressing the challenges of fabricating microwave antennas using conductive threads. In: Proceedings of the 6th European Conference Antennas Propagation, EuCAP 2012. pp. 1365–1367 (2012)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gupta, B., Sankaralingam, S., Dhar, S.: Development of wearable and implantable antennas in the last decade: A review. In: 2010 10th Mediterranean Microwave Symposium MMS 2010, pp. 251–267 (2010)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rais, N.H.M., Soh, P.J., Malek, F., Ahmad, S., Hashim, N.B.M., Hall, P.S.: A review of wearable antenna. In: Loughborough Antennas Propagation Conference LAPC 2009 - Conference Proceedings, pp. 225–228 (2009)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Seager, R., Zhang, S., Chauraya, A., Whittow, W., Vardaxoglou, Y., Acti, T., Dias, T.: Effect of the fabrication parameters on the performance of embroidered antennas. IET Microwaves Antennas Propag. 7, 1174–1181 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Acti, T., Zhang, S., Chauraya, A., Whittow, W., Seager, R., Dias, T., Vardaxoglou, Y.: High performance flexible fabric electronics for megahertz frequency communications. In: LAPC 2011 - 2011 Loughborough Antennas Propagation Conference (2011)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chauraya, A., Whittow, W.G., Vardaxoglou, J.C., Li, Y., Torah, R., Yang, K., Beeby, S., Tudor, J.: Inkjet printed dipole antennas on textiles for wearable communications. IET Microwaves Antennas Propag. 7, 760–767 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Moradi, E., Koski, K., Ukkonen, L., Rahmat-Samii, Y., Björninen, T., Sydänheimo, L.: Embroidered RFID tags in body-centric communication. In: 2013 International Workshop on Antenna Technology (iWAT), pp. 367–370 (2013)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Manzari, S., Occhiuzzi, C., Marrocco, G.: Feasibility of body-centric systems using passive textile RFID tags. IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 54, 49–62 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Panagamuwa, C.J., Whittow, W., Edwards, R., Vardaxoglou, J.C., McEvoy, P.: A study of the validation of RF energy specific absorption rates for simulations of anatomically correct head FDTD simulations and truncated DASY4 standard equipment measurements. In: European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, pp. 1–5 (2006)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Panagamuwa, C.J., Whittow, W.G., Edwards, R.M., Vardaxoglou, J.C.: Experimental verification of a modified Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin (SAM) head used for SAR measurements. 2007 Loughborough Antennas Propagation Conference, LAPC 2007 Conference Proceedings, pp. 261–264 (2007)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Stergiou, K., Panagamuwa, C., Whittow, W., Edwards, R.: Effects of metallic semi-rimmed spectacles on SAR in the head from a 900 MHz frontal dipole source. In: Loughborough Antennas Propagation Conference, LAPC 2009 - Conference Proceedings, pp. 721–724 (2009)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Whittow, W.G., Panagamuwa, C.J., Edwards, R.M., Vardaxoglou, J.C.: On the effects of straight metallic jewellery on the specific absorption rates resulting from face-illuminating radio communication devices at popular cellular frequencies. Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 1167–1182 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Whittow, W., Panagamuwa, C.J., Edwards, R., Vardaxoglou, J.C.: Specific absorption rates in the human head due to circular metallic earrings at 1800 MHz. In: 2007 Loughborough Antennas Propagation Conference, LAPC 2007 Conference Proceedings, pp. 277–280 (2007)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Whittow, W.G., Edwards, R.M., Panagamuwa, C.J., Vardaxoglou, J.C.: Effect of tongue jewellery and orthodontist metallic braces on the sar due to mobile phones in different anatomical human head models including children. In: 2008 Loughborough Antennas Propagation Conference, LAPC, pp. 293–296 (2008)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Panagamuwa, C.J., Whittow, W.G., Edwards, R.M., Vardaxoglou, J.C.: A study of the effects of metallic pins on SAR using a specific anthropomorphic mannequin (SAM) head phantom. In: European Conference on Antennas and Propogation, pp. 1–6 (2007)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Whittow, W.: Antenna emblems reshaped as icons and aesthetic logos (Aerial). Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 55, 1711–1714 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mahmud, M.S., Dey, S.: Design, performance and implementation of UWB wearable logo textile antenna. In: 2012 15 International Symposium Antenna Technology Application Electromagnetic, pp. 1–4 (2012)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chow, Y., Fung, C.: The city university logo patch antenna. In: Asia Pacific Microwave Conference, pp. 4–7 (1997)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ziai, M., Batchelor, J.: RFID TAGs as transfer tattoos. In: 2011 Loughborough Antennas and Propagation Conference (LAPC), pp. 1–4 (2011)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sanchez-Romaguera, V., Ziai, M.A., Oyeka, D., Barbosa, S., Wheeler, J.S.R., Batchelor, J.C., Parker, E.A., Yeates, S.G.: Towards inkjet-printed low cost passive UHF RFID skin mounted tattoo paper tags based on silver nanoparticle inks. J. Mater. Chem. C. 1, 6395 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Batchelor, J., Parker, E.: Inkjet printing of frequency selective surfaces. Electron. Lett. 45, 1–2 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Marrocco, G.: RFID antennas for the UHF remote monitoring of human subjects. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 55, 1862–1870 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kraus, J., Marhefka, R.: Antennas. McGraw-Hill, New York (1988)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gabriel, C., Gabriel, S., Corthout, E.: The dielectric properties of biological tissues: I. Literature survey. Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 2231–2249 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • James Tribe
    • 1
  • Dumtoochukwu Oyeka
    • 2
  • John Batchelor
    • 2
  • Navjot Kaur
    • 1
  • Diana Segura-Velandia
    • 1
  • Andrew West
    • 1
  • Robert Kay
    • 1
  • Katia Vega
    • 3
  • Will Whittow
    • 1
  1. 1.Loughborough UniversityLoughboroughUK
  2. 2.University of KentCanterburyUK
  3. 3.Pontificial Catholic University of Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil

Personalised recommendations