Laparoscopy Versus Robotics: Ergonomics—Does It Matter?

  • Theodoros Tokas
  • Ali Serdar Gözen
  • Jan Klein
  • Alexandra Tschada
  • Thomas Frede
  • Dogu Teber
  • Jens Rassweiler


Laparoscopy offers significant benefits to the patients, mainly due to its minimally invasive nature. Nevertheless, it is also characterized by significant ergonomic limitations which make it tedious for the surgeon. Robotic surgery seems to offer a valid solution to this problem but is also accompanied by several important ergonomic handicaps. In this chapter, we want to focus on the ergonomic problems of laparoscopy, in comparison to the da Vinci system, based on the current literature and personal long-term experience with both techniques. Additionally, we present different solutions to the ergonomic predicaments that one may encounter during a complex procedure, and future perspectives that could aid in the creation of ergonomically designed operating theatres for minimally invasive procedures.


Laparoscopy Ergonomics Robotic surgery da Vinci Surgeon posture Laparoscopic instruments 



The authors would specially like to thank Nikos Vatsitsis for preparing the graphics of this chapter.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Theodoros Tokas
    • 1
  • Ali Serdar Gözen
    • 2
  • Jan Klein
    • 3
  • Alexandra Tschada
    • 4
  • Thomas Frede
    • 5
  • Dogu Teber
    • 6
  • Jens Rassweiler
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Urology and AndrologyGeneral Hospital Hall i.THall in TirolAustria
  2. 2.Department of UrologySLK-Kliniken HeilbronnHeilbronnGermany
  3. 3.Department of Urology and Pediatric UrologyUniversity Hospital UlmUlmGermany
  4. 4.Department of UrologySLK-Kliniken HeilbronnHeilbronnGermany
  5. 5.Department of UrologyHelios-KlinikMüllheimGermany
  6. 6.Department of UrologyUniversity Hospital of HeidelbergHeidelbergGermany

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