Music Coding in Primary School

  • Luca A. LudovicoEmail author
  • Giuseppina Rita Mangione
Conference paper
Part of the Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies book series (SIST, volume 41)


This work stems from the recent reforms made to the Italian education system. On one side, a relevant aspect is the introduction of coding in primary school, where coding is seen as a way to improve learning processes in young students. On the other side, music education is considered a key element to promote the integration of the various aspects of personality: the perceptual-motor, the logic, and the affective-social component. After reviewing the state of the art, this work aims at defining a new discipline - called music coding - presenting the key elements of the two pedagogical approaches. A computer-based tool to foster the development of both coding and music skills in young students will be proposed.


Coding Music Education Primary school Pure Data 


  1. 1.
    Kellett, M.: Developing critical thinking skills in 10–12 year-olds through their active engagement in research. Teach. Think. Skills 14, 32–40 (2004)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schweinhart, L.J.: The high/scope approach: evidence that participatory learning in early childhood contributes to human development (2006)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Piaget, J., Beth, E., Brousseau, G.: Learning: creation or re-creation? from constructivism to the theory of didactical situations. A Critique Creativity Complexity: deconstruct. Clichés 25, 19–33 (2014)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Papert, S.: Mindstorms: children, computers, and powerful ideas. Basic Books, Inc. (1980)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    O’Dell, J.: Why your 8-year-old should be coding. (2013)
  6. 6.
    Duncan, C., Bell, T., Tanimoto, S.: Should your 8-year-old learn coding? In: Proceedings of the 9th Workshop in Primary and Secondary Computing Education, ACM, pp. 60–69 (2014)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Armoni, M.: Designing a K-12 computing curriculum: the questions. ACM Inroads 4(2), 34–35 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rushkoff, D.: Program or be programmed: ten commands for a digital age. Or Books (2010)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Resnick, M., Maloney, J., Monroy-Hernández, A., Rusk, N., Eastmond, E., Brennan, K., Millner, A., Rosenbaum, E., Silver, J., Silverman, B., et al.: Scratch: programming for all. Commun. ACM 52(11), 60–67 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wing, J.M.: Computational thinking and thinking about computing. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 366(1881), 3717–3725 (2008)CrossRefzbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ioannidou, A., Bennett, V., Repenning, A., Koh, K.H., Basawapatna, A.: Computational thinking patterns. Online Submission (2011)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brennan, K., Resnick, M.: New frameworks for studying and assessing the development of computational thinking. In: Proceedings of the 2012 annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Vancouver, Canada, Citeseer (2012)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ananiadou, K., Claro, M.: 21st century skills and competences for new millennium learners in oecd countries (2009)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Binkley, M., Erstad, O., Herman, J., Raizen, S., Ripley, M., Miller-Ricci, M., Rumble, M.: Defining twenty-first century skills. In: Assessment and teaching of 21st century skills, pp. 17–66. Springer (2012)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lye, S.Y., Koh, J.H.L.: Review on teaching and learning of computational thinking through programming: what is next for K-12? Comput. Hum. Behav. 41, 51–61 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mills, K.A.: A review of the digital turn in the new literacy studies. Rev. Educ. Res. 80(2), 246–271 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hague, C., Payton, S.: Digital literacy across the curriculum. Curriculum Leadership 9(10) (2011)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ng, W.: Can we teach digital natives digital literacy? Comput. Educ. 59(3), 1065–1078 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Grover, S., Pea, R.: Computational thinking in K-12 a review of the state of the field. Educ. Res. 42(1), 38–43 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Young, S.: Time-space structuring in spontaneous play on educational percussion instruments among three- and four-year-olds. Br. J. Music Educ. 20(1), 45–59 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jorgensen, E.R.: Philosophical issues in curriculum. In: The new handbook of research on music teaching and learning, pp. 48–62 (2002)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Barrett, M.S.: Sounding lives in and through music - a narrative inquiry of the everyday musical engagement of a young child. J. Early Child. Res. 7(2), 115–134 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tomlinson, M.M.: Literacy and music in early childhood. SAGE Open 3 (2013)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dewey, J.: Art as experience. Penguin (2005)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Willems, E., Podcaminsky, E.: Las bases psicológicas de la educación musical. Eudeba (1969)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Branca, D.: L’importanza dell’educazione musicale: risvolti pedagogici del fare bene musica insieme. Studi sulla formazione 15(1), 85–102 (2012)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Finney, J., Burnard, P.: Music education with digital technology. Bloomsbury Publishing (2010)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Vercoe, B.: Extended Csound. In: Proceedings of the International Computer Music Conference, International Computer Music Association, pp. 141–142 (1996)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Boulanger, R.C.: The Csound book: perspectives in software synthesis, sound design, signal processing, and programming. MIT press (2000)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Petri, C.A.: Introduction to general net theory. In: Net theory and applications, pp. 1–19. Springer (1980)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Haus, G., Rodriguez, A.: Music description and processing by Petri nets. In: Advances in Petri Nets 1988, pp. 175–199. Springer (1988)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Baratè, A., Haus, G., Ludovico, L.A.: Real-time music composition through P-timed Petri nets. In: Georgaki, A., Kouroupetroglou, G. (eds.) ICMC|SMC|2014 Proceedings, Athens 14–20 September 2014, pp. 408–415. Greece, Athens (2014)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jorda, S., Kaltenbrunner, M., Geiger, G., Bencina, R.: The Reactable. In: Proceedings of ICMC 2005, pp. 579–582, Barcelona, Spain (2005)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kaltenbranner, M., Jorda, S., Geiger, G., Alonso, M.: The Reactable: A collaborative musical instrument. In: Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises, 2006. WETICE’06, IEEE, pp. 406–411 (2006)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Puckette, M., et al.: Pure Data: another integrated computer music environment. In: Proceedings of the Second Intercollege Computer Music Concerts, pp. 37–41 (1996)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sarlo, J.A.: GrIPD: A graphical interface editing tool and run-time environment for Pure Data. In: Proceedings of ICMC 2003, International Computer Music Association, pp. 305–307 (2003)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.LIM, Dipartimento di InformaticaUniversitá degli Studi di MilanoMilanoItaly
  2. 2.Indire - Istituto Nazionale di Documentazione, Innovazione e Ricerca EducativaFirenzeItaly

Personalised recommendations